Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1323–1335 | Cite as

Determination of histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical effects of acute and chronic grayanotoxin III administration in different doses in rats

  • Züleyha Doğanyiğit
  • Sibel SiliciEmail author
  • Abdullah Demirtaş
  • Ertuğrul Kaya
  • Emin Kaymak
Research Article


Grayanotoxin (GTX)-III is a Na-channel neurotoxin. Grayanotoxins can be found in the nectar, pollen, and other plant parts of the Rhododendron genus plants from the Ericaceae family. It is widely believed that honey produced from these plants, which are concentrated in the Black Sea region, is traditionally characterized as enhancing sexual performance. It is thought that the effective factor is dose for this compound, which has both beneficial and toxic effects reported. Therefore, it is aimed to evaluate the histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical effects of acute and chronic impact of GTX-III in different doses on testes tissue in this study. For this purpose, 100 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 5 separate groups for acute and chronic research. While dose groups were (control, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, ve 0.8 μg/kg/bw) for experimental groups, a single dose (i.p.) was administered for acute impact whereas the same doses were administered daily for 3 weeks to assess chronic effect. At the end of the experiment, Johnsen testicular biopsy scoring was performed on testicular tissue samples, seminiferous tubule diameters were measured, and apoptotic cells were evaluated by TUNEL method. Testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were measured by ELISA method in serum and tissue specimens. It was found that Johnsen score of acute doses was significantly lower than the control group, and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules decreased significantly in acute and chronic dose-administered groups compared to the control. Hemorrhage, epithelial shedding, irregularity in seminiferous epithelium, and vacuolization were observed in acute and chronic dose-administered groups, and increase in apoptotic cells was determined. Hormone levels varied depending on the dose. In conclusion, it was found that dose-dependent acute and chronic effects of GTX-III are different, and this factor should be taken into account in studies to be carried out due to the adverse effects of high doses.


Grayanotoxin Ericaceae Sexual hormone Histology 


Funding information

This work was supported by Bozok University Project Coordination Application and Research Center (6602c-TF/17-60).

Compliance with ethical standards

The protocol of this study was approved by Ethic Committee, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Erciyes (protocol no: 16/088).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine Histology-Embryology DepartmentBozok UniversityYozgatTurkey
  2. 2.Seyrani Agricultural Faculty Agricultural Biotechnology DepartmentErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Medicine Urology DepartmentErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine Pharmacology DepartmentDüzce UniversityDüzceTurkey

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