Determination of histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical effects of acute and chronic grayanotoxin III administration in different doses in rats
- 108 Downloads
Grayanotoxin (GTX)-III is a Na-channel neurotoxin. Grayanotoxins can be found in the nectar, pollen, and other plant parts of the Rhododendron genus plants from the Ericaceae family. It is widely believed that honey produced from these plants, which are concentrated in the Black Sea region, is traditionally characterized as enhancing sexual performance. It is thought that the effective factor is dose for this compound, which has both beneficial and toxic effects reported. Therefore, it is aimed to evaluate the histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical effects of acute and chronic impact of GTX-III in different doses on testes tissue in this study. For this purpose, 100 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 5 separate groups for acute and chronic research. While dose groups were (control, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, ve 0.8 μg/kg/bw) for experimental groups, a single dose (i.p.) was administered for acute impact whereas the same doses were administered daily for 3 weeks to assess chronic effect. At the end of the experiment, Johnsen testicular biopsy scoring was performed on testicular tissue samples, seminiferous tubule diameters were measured, and apoptotic cells were evaluated by TUNEL method. Testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were measured by ELISA method in serum and tissue specimens. It was found that Johnsen score of acute doses was significantly lower than the control group, and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules decreased significantly in acute and chronic dose-administered groups compared to the control. Hemorrhage, epithelial shedding, irregularity in seminiferous epithelium, and vacuolization were observed in acute and chronic dose-administered groups, and increase in apoptotic cells was determined. Hormone levels varied depending on the dose. In conclusion, it was found that dose-dependent acute and chronic effects of GTX-III are different, and this factor should be taken into account in studies to be carried out due to the adverse effects of high doses.
KeywordsGrayanotoxin Ericaceae Sexual hormone Histology
This work was supported by Bozok University Project Coordination Application and Research Center (6602c-TF/17-60).
Compliance with ethical standards
The protocol of this study was approved by Ethic Committee, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Erciyes (protocol no: 16/088).
- Ascioglu C, Ozesmi C, Dogan P, Ozturk F (2000) Effects of acute grayantoxin-I administration on hepatic and renal functions in rats. Turkish J Med Sci 30:23–27Google Scholar
- Ghasemnezhad R, Mohammadghasemi F, Faghani M, Bahadori MH (2015) Oxytocin can decrease germ cells apoptotic index in testis under acute ischemia reperfusion in a rat model. Iran J Reprod Med 13:283–290Google Scholar
- Onat FY, Yegen BC, Lawrence R, Oktay A, Oktay S (1991) Mad honey poisoning in man and rat. Rev Environ Health 1:4–9Google Scholar
- Oztasan N, Altinkaynak K, Akcay F, Gocer F, Dane S (2005) Effect of mad honey on blood glucose and lipid levels in rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29:1093–1096Google Scholar
- Poon WT, Ho CH, Yip KL et al (2008) Grayanotoxin poisoning from Rhododendron simsii in an infant. Hong Kong Med J 14(5):405–407Google Scholar
- Popescu R, Krupitza G, Kopp B (2009) Novel insights into the mechanism of action of grayanotoxin III. Planta Med:75–PE12Google Scholar
- Salman TM, Alagbonsi IA, Olayaki LA et al (2013) Honey increases sperm count in male albino rats by enhancing testosterone production. Biokemistri 25(2):39–44Google Scholar
- Scott PM, Coldwell BB, Wilberg GS (1971) Grayanotoxins. Occurrence and analysis in honey and a comparison of toxicities in mice. Food and cosmetics. Toxicol 9:179–184Google Scholar
- Tajar A, Huhtaniemi IT, O'Neill TW, Finn JD, Pye SR, Lee DM, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Casanueva FFF, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Kula K, Labrie F, Lean MEJ, Pendleton N, Punab M, Vanderschueren D, Wu FCW, the EMAS Group (2012) Characteristics of androgen deficiency in late-onset hypogonadism: results from the European male aging study (EMAS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97(5):1508–1516. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-2513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wong J, Youde E, Dickinson B, Hale M (2002) Report of the rhododendron feasibility study. https://www.wildresources.co.uk/reports/rhodo_eng.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2018
- Yilmaz I, Kaya E, Yaykaslı KO, Turker Y (2017) The dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of intravenous grayanotoxin-III in rats. J Dr Behcet Uz Children's Hospital 7(2):121–128Google Scholar