Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1809–1820 | Cite as

Effects of CO2 application and endophytic bacterial inoculation on morphological properties, photosynthetic characteristics and cadmium uptake of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

  • Lin Tang
  • Yasir Hamid
  • Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala
  • Zhenli He
  • Xiaoe YangEmail author
Research Article


Plant uptake of cadmium (Cd) is affected by soil and environmental conditions. In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 coupled with inoculated endophytic bacteria M002 on morphological properties, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Cd uptake of S. alfredii. The results showed that bio-fortification processes (elevated CO2 and/or inoculated with endophytic bacteria) significantly (p < 0.05) promoted growth patterns, improved photosynthetic characteristics and increased Cd tolerance of both ecotypes of S. alfredii, as compared to normal conditions. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in intact leaves of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were increased by 73.93 and 32.90%, respectively at the low Cd (2 μM), 84.41 and 57.65%, respectively at the high Cd level (10 μM). Superposition treatment increased Cd concentration in shoots and roots of HE, by 50.87 and 82.12%, respectively at the low Cd and 46.75 and 88.92%, respectively at the high Cd level. Besides, superposition treatment declined Cd transfer factor of NHE, by 0.85% at non-Cd rate, 17.22% at the low Cd and 22.26% at the high Cd level. These results indicate that elevated CO2 coupled with endophytic bacterial inoculation may effectively improve phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soils by hyperaccumulator, and alleviate Cd toxicity to non-hyperaccumulator ecotype of Sedum alfredii.


Cadmium uptake Elevated CO2 Endophyte Photosynthesis Sedum alfredii 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Key Projects from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (#2016YFD0800805), Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Bureau (#2015C02011-3; #2015C03020-2), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Funding from Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3680_MOESM1_ESM.doc (142 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 141 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lin Tang
    • 1
  • Yasir Hamid
    • 1
  • Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala
    • 1
  • Zhenli He
    • 2
  • Xiaoe Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education CenterUniversity of FloridaFort PierceUSA

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