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Preparation of carbonaceous materials from pyrolysis of chicken bones and its application for fuchsine adsorption

  • Letícia Nascimento Côrtes
  • Susanne Pedroso Druzian
  • Angélica Fátima Mantelli Streit
  • Tito Roberto Sant’anna Cadaval Junior
  • Gabriela Carvalho Collazzo
  • Guilherme Luiz DottoEmail author
Alternative Adsorbent Materials for Application in Processes Industrial
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

Activated carbon and biochar were obtained from chicken bone (CB), characterized, and applied to remove basic fuchsine from aqueous media. The adsorbent dosage and pH effects were studied, as well as kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic curves were constructed. The values of BET surface area and total pore volume were 108.94 m2 g−1 and 0.219 cm3 g−1 for the activated carbon and, 18.72 m2 g−1 and 0.075 cm3 g−1 for the biochar. The dye removal percentages were 93.63 and 55.38% when 2.5 g L−1 of activated carbon and biochar were used, respectively. The adsorption was favored using 0.5 g L−1 of adsorbent and pH of 7.0. Adsorption kinetics was well represented by the pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir model was the best to represent the equilibrium. Maximum adsorption capacity was 260.8 mg g−1, obtained using activated carbon. The process was endothermic, favorable, and spontaneous. Results showed that alternative carbonaceous materials can be obtained from chicken bones and used as adsorbents to treat colored effluents containing fuchsine.

Keywords

Biochar Activated carbon Adsorption Bone chicken Fuchsine 

Nomenclature and units

%Rbio

Yield of biochar (%)

%Ractivated carbon

Yield of activated carbon (%)

mCB

Mass of chicken bone introduced into the oven (g)

mBiochar

Mass of biochar obtained after pyrolysis stage (g)

mactivated carbon

Mass of activated carbon obtained after activation (g)

R%

Dye removal percentage (%)

Ce

Equilibrium fuchsine concentration in liquid phase (mg L−1)

C0

Initial fuchsine concentration in liquid phase (mg L−1)

Ct

Fuchsine concentration in liquid at any time (mg L−1)

qe

Adsorption capacity at equilibrium (mg g−1)

qt

Adsorption capacity at any time (mg g−1)

M

Amount of adsorbent (g)

V

Volume of solution (L)

q1

Theoretical value for the adsorption capacity of PFO model (mg g−1)

k1

Rate constant of PFO model (min−1)

q2

Theoretical value for the adsorption capacity of PSO model (mg g−1)

k2

Rate constant of PSO model (g mg−1 min−1)

t

Time (min)

kF

Freundlich constant ((mg g−1) (mg L−1)–1/nF)

1/nF

Heterogeneity factor (dimensionless)

qm

Maximum adsorption capacity (mg g−1)

kL

Langmuir constant (L mg−1)

R2

Coefficient of determination (dimensionless)

R2adj

Adjusted coefficient of determination (dimensionless)

ARE

Average relative error (%)

ΔG0

Standard Gibbs free energy change (kJ mol−1)

ΔS0

Standard entropy change (kJ mol−1)

ΔH0

Standard enthalpy change (kJ mol−1 K−1)

Ke

Equilibrium constant (L g−1)

R

Universal constant (kJ mol−1 K−1)

T

Temperature (K)

List of abbreviations

BET

Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller

BJH

Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda

CB

Chicken bone

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

FT-IR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

Notes

Funding information

The authors would like to thank Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Letícia Nascimento Côrtes
    • 1
  • Susanne Pedroso Druzian
    • 1
  • Angélica Fátima Mantelli Streit
    • 1
  • Tito Roberto Sant’anna Cadaval Junior
    • 2
  • Gabriela Carvalho Collazzo
    • 1
  • Guilherme Luiz Dotto
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentFederal University of Santa Maria, UFSMSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Industrial Technology Laboratory, School of Chemistry and FoodFederal University of Rio Grande-FURGRio GrandeBrazil

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