Preparation of carbonaceous materials from pyrolysis of chicken bones and its application for fuchsine adsorption

  • Letícia Nascimento Côrtes
  • Susanne Pedroso Druzian
  • Angélica Fátima Mantelli Streit
  • Tito Roberto Sant’anna Cadaval Junior
  • Gabriela Carvalho Collazzo
  • Guilherme Luiz DottoEmail author
Alternative Adsorbent Materials for Application in Processes Industrial


Activated carbon and biochar were obtained from chicken bone (CB), characterized, and applied to remove basic fuchsine from aqueous media. The adsorbent dosage and pH effects were studied, as well as kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic curves were constructed. The values of BET surface area and total pore volume were 108.94 m2 g−1 and 0.219 cm3 g−1 for the activated carbon and, 18.72 m2 g−1 and 0.075 cm3 g−1 for the biochar. The dye removal percentages were 93.63 and 55.38% when 2.5 g L−1 of activated carbon and biochar were used, respectively. The adsorption was favored using 0.5 g L−1 of adsorbent and pH of 7.0. Adsorption kinetics was well represented by the pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir model was the best to represent the equilibrium. Maximum adsorption capacity was 260.8 mg g−1, obtained using activated carbon. The process was endothermic, favorable, and spontaneous. Results showed that alternative carbonaceous materials can be obtained from chicken bones and used as adsorbents to treat colored effluents containing fuchsine.


Biochar Activated carbon Adsorption Bone chicken Fuchsine 

Nomenclature and units


Yield of biochar (%)

%Ractivated carbon

Yield of activated carbon (%)


Mass of chicken bone introduced into the oven (g)


Mass of biochar obtained after pyrolysis stage (g)

mactivated carbon

Mass of activated carbon obtained after activation (g)


Dye removal percentage (%)


Equilibrium fuchsine concentration in liquid phase (mg L−1)


Initial fuchsine concentration in liquid phase (mg L−1)


Fuchsine concentration in liquid at any time (mg L−1)


Adsorption capacity at equilibrium (mg g−1)


Adsorption capacity at any time (mg g−1)


Amount of adsorbent (g)


Volume of solution (L)


Theoretical value for the adsorption capacity of PFO model (mg g−1)


Rate constant of PFO model (min−1)


Theoretical value for the adsorption capacity of PSO model (mg g−1)


Rate constant of PSO model (g mg−1 min−1)


Time (min)


Freundlich constant ((mg g−1) (mg L−1)–1/nF)


Heterogeneity factor (dimensionless)


Maximum adsorption capacity (mg g−1)


Langmuir constant (L mg−1)


Coefficient of determination (dimensionless)


Adjusted coefficient of determination (dimensionless)


Average relative error (%)


Standard Gibbs free energy change (kJ mol−1)


Standard entropy change (kJ mol−1)


Standard enthalpy change (kJ mol−1 K−1)


Equilibrium constant (L g−1)


Universal constant (kJ mol−1 K−1)


Temperature (K)

List of abbreviations


Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller


Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda


Chicken bone


Differential scanning calorimetry


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Scanning electron microscopy


X-ray diffraction


Funding information

The authors would like to thank Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Letícia Nascimento Côrtes
    • 1
  • Susanne Pedroso Druzian
    • 1
  • Angélica Fátima Mantelli Streit
    • 1
  • Tito Roberto Sant’anna Cadaval Junior
    • 2
  • Gabriela Carvalho Collazzo
    • 1
  • Guilherme Luiz Dotto
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentFederal University of Santa Maria, UFSMSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Industrial Technology Laboratory, School of Chemistry and FoodFederal University of Rio Grande-FURGRio GrandeBrazil

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