Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1474–1486 | Cite as

Pollutants from fish feeding recycled for microalgae production as sustainable, renewable and valuable products

  • Hing ChanEmail author
Research Article


Trash fish feeding of cage fish can result in marine pollution. Whole and chopped trash fish can leach pollutants such as ammonia, phosphate and protein into surrounding waters. Reduction of pollution can be achieved by recycling the wastewater generated from trash fish feeding for cultivation of microalgae. Microalgae are potent candidates for the production of renewable and sustainable products such as feed and food, health and pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, industrial products, and biofuel. Two microalgae, Chlorella saccharophila and Nannochloropsis sp., have the potential to produce high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, high oil content ranging from 10.7 to 13.6% is found in Chlorella saccharophila and up to 9.3% for Nannochloropsis sp. Moreover, these microalgae can also be utilized as a biofuel to give a mean calorific value of 5364 Cal/g which is higher than that of wood for Chlorella saccharophila and 6132 Cal/g which is equivalent to that of coal for Nannochloropsis sp. An alternative biofuel derived from microalgae is feasible due to the fact that they do not compete for arable land for cultivation and land crops for feed and food. This study discusses the synergistic coupling of microalgae mass production with wastewater treatment and carbon sequestration potential for mitigation of environmental impacts and a technically viable alternative energy resource. Additionally, the de-oiled biomass byproduct after oil extraction or its whole biomass can be converted into sustainable and renewal industrial products such as bioplastic, biopaint, bioasphalt, and biobuilding components.


Pollutants recycling Microalgae Renewable Polyunsaturated fatty acids Biofuel Sustainable industrial products 



The author deeply appreciates the support and participation of those fish farmers and the colleagues for taking samples and setting up the equipment and tools at sites, workshops and laboratories. The author would also like to express sincere thanks to the testing laboratories.

Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not feature any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.

Conflict of interest

The author declares no conflicting interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Resources TechnologiesHong KongChina

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