The suitability of growing mulberry (Morus alba L.) on soils consisting of urban sludge composted with garden waste: a new method for urban sludge disposal
- 85 Downloads
Efficient disposal of urban sewage sludge, material that typically contains high concentrations of heavy metals, has become a significant concern worldwide. The empirical purpose of the current study is to investigate physical and chemical parameters of composted sludge and garden waste at different ratios. Results reveal that nutrient content has significantly increased after the application of composts as compared to the controlled sample. Composting garden waste with sewage sludge at a 1:1 ratio promoted plant growth and gradually showed superiority in the later period. The maximum plant height, total biomass, and crown width of mulberry trees increased by 12.1, 33.5, and 45.7%, respectively, compared with the control treatment. The bound to organic matter of Hg, Cr, and Pb in the sewage sludge increased after composting with garden waste, and the mulberry exhibited a high ability to accumulate Ni and Cd from the soil. Conclusively, compared to using the two soil mediums separately, composting garden waste and sewage sludge together is beneficial for soil improvement and vegetation growth.
KeywordsSewage sludge Garden waste Heavy metal Soil improvement
Thanks to Mr. Azfar Hussain for the language modification of the article which enhances the readability of the article.
Experimental design: Liqing Si, Xiawei Peng, and Jinxing Zhou. Field investigation and laboratory experiment: Liqing Si. Data analysis: Liqing Si. Drafting of manuscript: Liqing Si and Jinxing Zhou. and Revisions and suggestions: Xiawei Peng and Jinxing Zhou
Funding for the study was granted from the Science and Technology Committee of Beijing (Z151100002115006).
- American Public Health Association (APHA) (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. APHA, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
- Chen CM, Gong HQ, Wang KR et al (1999) The absorption, accumulation and migration of cadmium in the system of soil mulberry and silkworm. Acta Ecol Sin 19:664–669Google Scholar
- Cherif H, Ayari F, Ouzari H, Marzorati M, Brusetti L, Jedidi N, Hassen A, Daffonchio D (2009) Effects of municipal solid waste compost, farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on wheat growth, soil composition and soil bacterial characteristics under Tunisian arid climate. Eur J Soil Biol 45:138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dai YW, Zhu H, Du HZ et al (2009) On the economic value and ecological function of mulberry resources. Protec For Sci Technol 1:78–80 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China (GAQSIQ) (2009) Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China disposal of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant-quality of sludge used in gardens or parks, GB/T 23486–2009Google Scholar
- Maschnner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academia Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Persans MW, Huynh L, Salt DE (2000) A novel family of putative vacuolar metal transport proteins involved in nickel tolerance in the nickel hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense. American Society of Plant Physiologists, San Diego (USA) abstract 747Google Scholar
- Shaw RJ (1999) Soil salinity-electrical conductivity and chloride. In: Peverill KI, Sparrow LA, Reuter DJ (eds) Soil analysis: interpretation manual. CSIRO Publishing, Melboune, pp 129–144Google Scholar
- Song U, Lee EJ (2010) Environmental and economical assessment of sewage sludge compost application on soil and plants in a landfill. Resour Conserv Recy 53:259–267Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) (1996) Acid digestion of sediments, sludges, and soils, Method 3050BGoogle Scholar
- Yang BJ, Qian HY, Huang GQ et al (2012) Research progress and rice-straw returning. J Agric For 2:1–4 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yu J, Chen TB, Gao D et al (2011) Typical organic contaminants in China urban sewage sludge for land application. Chinese Journal of Ecology 30:2365–2369Google Scholar
- Zhang GC, Yang JH, Zhao XM (1996) Study on root distribution and characteristics of soil and water conservation of mulberry. Sci Seric 23:59–60 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhao FY, Li WZ, Zhang XB et al (2011) Study on the application of raw sludge and compost sludge in lawn production. Environ Pollut Control 33:32–35 (in Chinese)Google Scholar