Characteristics and formation mechanisms of autumn haze pollution in Chengdu based on high time-resolved water-soluble ion analysis Research Article First Online: 26 November 2018 Abstract
To investigate the characteristics and formation mechanisms of haze pollution in the autumn season in the Sichuan Basin, hourly concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM
2.5 (Na +, K +, NH 4 +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Cl −, NO 3 −, and SO 4 2−) and major gaseous precursors (HCl, NH 3, SO 2, HONO, and HNO 3) were measured by a gas and aerosol collector combined with ion chromatography (GAC-IC) from September to November 2017 at an urban site in Chengdu. The average mass concentration of total water-soluble ions was 36.9 ± 29.4 μg m −3, accounting for 62.8% of PM 2.5 mass. Nitrate was the most abundant ion, comprising 41.2% of the total ions, followed by sulfate (27.1%) and ammonium (18.1%), indicating the important contribution of motor vehicle emissions to PM 2.5 in Chengdu. Secondary formation of inorganic ions and biomass burning emissions played a vital role in the haze pollution processes. The formation of nitrate aerosol was particularly dominant and exhibited the most substantial increase during haze processes. It was likely to be produced primarily through homogeneous reactions, whereas heterogeneous reactions dominated sulfate formation. Additionally, distinct differences in diurnal patterns of secondary inorganic ions between clean days and polluted days were observed, reflecting different formation characteristics under polluted conditions. Due to a large increase of acidic aerosols, most particles collected on polluted days were acidic, and ammonium in most samples existed mainly as NH 4HSO 4 and NH 4NO 3. Furthermore, backward-trajectory cluster analysis revealed that air masses originating from the northeast of Chengdu prevailed in the autumn season, and haze pollution was dominated mainly by short-distance transport within the Sichuan Basin. Keywords PM 2.5 Haze Water-soluble inorganic ions Gaseous precursors Chengdu
Responsible editor: Gerhard Lammel
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (
) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3630-6 Notes Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the support from the Sichuan comprehensive monitoring station for environmental air quality.
This work was financially supported by the key project of the Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2018SZ0288), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41805095), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2682017CX080).
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