Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 421–430 | Cite as

Indoor phthalates from household dust in Qatar: implications for non-dietary human exposure

  • Noof Nayef Al_Qasmi
  • Hussain Al-Thaiban
  • Murad I. H. Helaleh
Research Article

Abstract

Phthalates are ubiquitous semi-volatile organic compounds in the indoor environment present in various consumer products such as cosmetics, polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring, food packing, and many others. Indoor phthalate concentrations were investigated in 15 buildings including 11 homes, 3 laboratories, and 1 from a hospital in Qatar. Dust samples were collected from vacuum cleaning bags usually used for cleaning homes, labs, and hospitals. The main objectives of this study was to determine the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust in Qatar and consequently to estimate the non-dietary human exposure. Eleven phthalates was analyzed. The major identified phthalate compounds at homes in Qatar were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate unlabeled (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) at a geometric mean of 288 μg/g (median 395 μg/g) and 106 μg/g (median 101 μg/g) accounting for 57% and 23% of the total measured phthalates, respectively. The major phthalate compounds found in the first lab building were DEHP and DINP with a median of 4861 μg/g and 943 μg/g, respectively, accounting for 82% and 16% of the total phthalates. For the second lab building, the major phthalates were DEHP with a median of 466 μg/g, accounting for 20% of the total phthalates measured, and DINP median of 1725 μg/g, accounting for 71% of the total measured phthalates. The dust sample tested from hospital building had DEHP as the major phthalate compound with a median of 793 μg/g, accounting for 4.0% of the total measured phthalates, and DINP with a median of 19,626 μg/g, accounting for 94%. The estimated human non-dietary exposure for children, adults, and toddlers was based on phthalate concentrations (median) and found to be 225 ng/kg bw/day for children, 2328 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 2099 ng/kg bw/day for toddlers.

Keywords

Human exposure Phthalates House dust 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the following students, Habiba A. A., Zeinab E. M.d., Samiya S. M., and Yasmin M. A. from Qatar University, for their engagement in the summer internship, contribution in sample collection, and extraction during this work.

References

  1. Abb M, Heinrich T, Sorkau E, & Lorenz W (2009) Phthalates in house dust. Environment International, 35(6), 965–970Google Scholar
  2. Afshari A, Gunnarsen L, Clausen PA, Hanse V (2004) Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials. Indoor Air 14(2):120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albar HMSA, Ali N, Shahzad K, Ismail IMI, Rashid MI, Wang W, Eqani SAMAS (2017) Phthalate esters in settled dust of different indoor microenvironments; source of non-dietary human exposure. Microchem J 132:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson P, Rännar S (2009) A report on the initial procedure for identification of chemical/article/use combinations of concern, including the selected case-study chemicals. Chemi. Tecs. Report P2-D2, UmeåGoogle Scholar
  5. BAUCH (1991) Analyse und Bewertung der in Raumluft und Hausstaub vorhandenen Konzentrationen der Weichmacherbestandteile Diethylhexylphthalat (DEHP) und Dibutylphthalat (DBP) Sachstandsbericht. Eigenverlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker K, Seiwert M, Angerer J, Heger W, Koch HM, Nagorka R, Ullrich D (2004) DEHP metabolites in urine of children and DEHP in house dust. Intern J of Hyg Environ Health 207(5):409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bizzari S, Oppenberg B, Ishikawa Y (2000) Plasticizers. Chemical Economics Handbook, SRI International, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornehag CG, Lundgren B, Weschler CJ, Sigsgaard T, Hagerhed-Engman L, Sundell J (2005a) Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with building characteristics. Enviro Health Persp 113:1399–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bornehag CG, Lundgren B, Weschler CJ, Sigsgaard T, Hagerhed-Engman L, Sundell J (2005b) Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with building characteristics. Environ Health Persp 113:1399–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butte W, Hostrup O, Walker G (2008) Phthalates in house dust and air: associations and potential sources indoors. Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung Der Luft 68(3):79–81Google Scholar
  11. Calafat AM, McKee RH (2006) Integrating biomonitoring exposure data into the risk assessment process: phthalates [diethyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] as a case study. Environmental health perspectives, 114(11):1783Google Scholar
  12. Carlstedt F, Jönsson BAG, Bornehag CG (2013) PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air 23(1):32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clausen PA, Bille RLL, Nilsson T, Hansen V, Svensmark B, Bøwadt S (2003) Simultaneous extraction of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and nonionic surfactants from house dust: concentrations in floor dust from 15 Danish schools. J of Chromatogr A 986(2):179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clausen PA, Hansen V, Gunnarsen L, Afshari A, Wolkoff P (2014) Emission of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC flooring into air and uptake in dust: emission and sorption experiments in FLEC and CLIMPAQ. Environ Sci Tech 38(9):2531–2537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Orsi D, Gagliardi L, Porra R, Berri S, Chimenti P, Granese A, Tonelli DA (2006) Environmentally friendly reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for phthalates determination in nail cosmetics. Anal Chim Acta 555(2):238–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Di Bella G, Saitta M, Pellegrino M, Salvo F, Dugo G (1999) Contamination of Italian citrus essential oils: presence of phthalate esters. J Agri Food Chem 47(3):1009–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Expertanswer (2012) May 23, Phthalates in PVC floors taken up by the body in infants.ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://www.sciecnedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120523102142.htm
  18. Fromme H (2011) Phthalates: exposure. In: Jo N (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental health, vol 4. Elsevier, Burlington, pp 498–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fromme H, Lahrz T, Piloty M, Gebhart H, Oddoy A, Rüden H (2004) Occurrence of phthalates and musk fragrances in indoor air and dust from apartments and kindergartens in Berlin (Germany). Indoor Air 14(3):188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gevao B, Al-Ghadban AN, Bahloul M, Uddin S, Zafar J (2013) Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure. Indoor Air 23(2):126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Guo Y, Kannan K (2011) Comparative assessment of human exposure to phthalate esters from house dust in China and the United States. Environ Sci Tech 45(8):3788–3794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guo Y, Alomirah H, Cho HS, Minh TB, Mohd MA, Nakata H, Kannan K (2011) Occurrence of phthalate metabolites in human urine from several Asian countries. Environ Sci Tech 45(7):3138–3144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harrad S, de Wit CA, Abdallah MAE, Bergh C, Björklund JA, Covaci A, Leonards P (2010) Indoor contamination with hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluoroalkyl compounds: an important exposure pathway for people? Environ Sci Tech 44(9):3221–3231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hsu NY, Lee CC, Wang JY, Li YC, Chang HW, Chen CY, Su HJ (2012) Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine. Indoor Air 22(3):186–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kersten W, Reich T (2003) Schwer flüchtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstäuben. Gefahrstoffe–Reinhalt Luft 63(3):85–91Google Scholar
  26. Kolarik B, Bornehag CG, Naydenov K, Sundell J, Stavova P, Nielsen OF (2008) The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family. Atm Environ 42(37):8553–8559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Konstantin C, Huanwen C, Gerardo G, Liang Z, Renato Z (2009) Detection of diethyl phthalates in perfumes by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 81(1):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Langer S, Weschler CJ, Fischer A, Bekö G, Toftum J, Clausen G (2010) Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers. Atm Environ 44(19):2294–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Latini G, De Felice C, Presta G, Del Vecchio A, Paris I, Ruggieri F, Mazzeo P (2003) In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and duration of human pregnancy. Environ Health Persp 111(14):1783–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lin X, Shen T (2009) Characteristics of phthalate esters pollution in indoor settled dust. J Environ Health 26(12):1109–1111Google Scholar
  31. Liu L, Bao H, Liu F, Zhang J, Shen H (2012) Phthalates exposure of Chinese reproductive age couples and its effect on male semen quality, a primary study. Environ Inter 42:78–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ma LL, Chu SG, Xu XB (2003) Phthalate residues in greenhouse soil from Beijing suburbs, People’s Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxic 71(2):0394–0399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nagorka R, Scheller C, Ullrich D (2005) Plasticizer in house dust. Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung Der Luft 65(3):99–105Google Scholar
  34. Orecchio S, Indelicato R, Barreca S (2013) The distribution of phthalate esters in indoor dust of Palermo (Italy). Environ Geochem Health 35(5):613–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pei XQ, Song M, Guo M, Mo FF, Shen XY (2013) Concentration and risk assessment of phthalates present in indoor air from newly decorated apartments. Atm Environ 68:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peters RJ (2003) Hazardous chemicals in consumer products. TNO report, 2003, 370Google Scholar
  37. Plastics Europe Deutschland e. V (2006) Argumente Kunststoff und PhthalateGoogle Scholar
  38. Pors J, Fuhlendorff R (2001) Phthalates and organic tin compounds in PVC products. Miljö-Kemi for Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  39. Rännar S, Andersson PL (2010) A novel approach using hierarchical clustering to select industrial chemicals for environmental impact assessment. J of Chem Inform Mod 50(1):30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rudel RA, Camann DE, Spengler JD, Korn LR, Brody JG (2003) Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environ Sci Tech 37(20):4543–4553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Salvatore B, Roberta I, Santino O, Andrea P (2014) Phtotodegradation of selected phthalates on mural painting surfaces under UV light irradiation. Microchem J 114:192–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santillo D, Labunska I, Davidson H, Johnston P, Strutt M, Knowles O (2003) Consuming Chemicals–Hazardous Chemicals in House Dust as an Indicator of Chemical Exposure in the Home Greenpeace Research Laboratories. GRL-TN-01-2003Google Scholar
  43. Schweizer C, Edwards RD, Bayer-Oglesby L, Gauderman WJ, Ilacqua V, Jantunen MJ, Künzli N (2006) Indoor time–microenvironment–activity patterns in seven regions of Europe. J Expo Sci Environ Epid 17(2):170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sheldon L, Whitaker D, Keever J, Clayton A, Perritt R (1993) Phthalates and PAHs in indoor and outdoor air in a southern California community. Indoor Air 93:109–114Google Scholar
  45. Sørensen LK (2006) Determination of phthalates in milk and milk products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Comm Mass Spec 20(7):1135–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Swan SH (2008) Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environ Res 108(2):177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Toda H, Sako K, Yagome Y, Nakamura T (2004) Simultaneous determination of phosphate esters and phthalate esters in clean room air and indoor air by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 519(2):213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Toft G, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Hjollund NH, Vested A, Bonde JP (2012) Association between pregnancy loss and urinary phthalate levels around the time of conception. Environ Health Persp 120(3):458–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002) Child-Specific Exposure Factors HandbookGoogle Scholar
  50. USEPA N (2011) Exposure factors handbook 2011 edition (final), Washington, District of Columbia, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/ R-09/052FGoogle Scholar
  51. Weschler CJ (1984) Indoor-outdoor relationships for nonpolar organic constituents of aerosol particles. Environ Sci Technol 18(9):648–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW (2008) Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments. Atm Environ 42(40):9018–9040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW (2010) SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. Atm Environ 44(30):3609–3620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW (2012) SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways. Indoor Air 22(5):356–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wormuth M, Scheringer M, Vollenweider M, Hungerbühler K (2006) What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans? Risk Anal 26(3):803–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Xu Y, Cohen HEA, Clausen PA, Little JC (2009) Predicting residential exposure to phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring: a mechanistic analysis. Environ Sci Tech 43(7):2374–2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noof Nayef Al_Qasmi
    • 1
  • Hussain Al-Thaiban
    • 1
  • Murad I. H. Helaleh
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology and Multipurpose Lab.Anti Doping Lab. QatarDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations