Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36087–36101 | Cite as

The basic roles of indoor plants in human health and comfort

  • Linjing Deng
  • Qihong Deng
Review Article
  • 210 Downloads

Abstract

Humans have a close relationship with nature, and so integrating the nature world into indoor space could effectively increase people’s engagement with nature, and this in turn may benefit their health and comfort. Since people spend 80–90% of their time indoors, the indoor environment is very important for their health. Indoor plants are part of natural indoor environment, but their effect on the indoor environment and on humans has not been quantified. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the role and importance of indoor plants in human health and comfort according to the following four criteria: photosynthesis; transpiration; psychological effects; and purification. Photosynthesis and transpiration are important mechanisms for plants, and the basic functions maintaining the carbon and oxygen cycles in nature. Above all have potential inspiration to human’s activities that people often ignored, for example, the application of solar panel, artificial photosynthesis, and green roof/facades were motivated by those functions. Indoor plants have also been shown to have indirect unconscious psychological effect on task performance, health, and levels of stress. Indoor plants can act as indoor air purifiers, they are an effective way to reduce pollutants indoor to reduce human exposure, and have been widely studied in this regard. Indoor plants have potential applications in other fields, including sensing, solar energy, acoustic, and people’s health and comfort. Making full use of various effects in plants benefit human health and comfort.

Keywords

Indoor plants Photosynthesis Transpiration Psychological effect Purification Health 

Notes

Funding information

This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (51576214 and 21777193) and the Key Research and Development Program of Hunan Province (No.2017SK2091).

References

  1. Adachi M, Rohde CLE, Kendle AD (2000) Effects of floral and foliage displays on human emotions. Horttech 10:142–155Google Scholar
  2. Afsharinejad A, Davy A, Jennings B (2016) Dynamic channel allocation in electromagnetic nanonetworks for high resolution monitoring of plants. Nano Commun Networks 7:2–16Google Scholar
  3. Alharbi FH, Kais S (2015) Theoretical limits of photovoltaics efficiency and possible improvements by intuitive approaches learned from photosynthesis and quantum coherence. Renew Sust Energ Rev 43:1073–1089Google Scholar
  4. Alstrum-Acevedo JH, Brennaman MK, Meyer TJ (2005) Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis. 2. Inorg Chem 44:6802–6827Google Scholar
  5. Aydogan A, Montoya LD (2011) Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media. Atmos Environ 45:2675–2682Google Scholar
  6. Bello AO, Tawabini BS, Khalil AB, Boland CR, Saleh TA (2018) Phytoremediation of cadmium-, lead- and nickel-contaminated water by Phragmites australis in hydroponic systems. Ecol Eng 120:126–133Google Scholar
  7. Benniston AC, Harriman A (2008) Artificial photosynthesis. Mater Today 11:26–34Google Scholar
  8. Bensaid S, Centi G, Garrone E, Perathoner S, Saracco G (2012) Towards artificial leaves for solar hydrogen and fuels from carbon dioxide. ChemSusChem 5:500–521Google Scholar
  9. Bergstrand K, Schussler H (2013) Growth, development and photosynthesis of some horticultural plants as affected by different supplementary lighting technologies. Eur J Hortic Sci 78:119–125Google Scholar
  10. Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Barnes C, Bernstein IL, Nel A, Peden D, Diaz-Sanchez D, Tarlo SM, Williams PB (2004) Health effects of air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:1116–1123Google Scholar
  11. Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Bacchus H, Bernstein IL, Fritz P, Horner E, Li N, Mason S, Nel A, Oullette J (2008) The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:585–591Google Scholar
  12. Blunden SL, Beebe DW (2006) The contribution of intermittent hypoxia, sleep debt and sleep disruption to daytime performance deficits in children: consideration of respiratory and non-respiratory sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev 10:109–118Google Scholar
  13. Bot GP (2001) Developments in indoor sustainable plant production with emphasis on energy saving. Comput Electron Agric 30:151–165Google Scholar
  14. Boulard T, Wang S (2000) Greenhouse crop transpiration simulation from external climate conditions. Agric For Meteorol 100:25–34Google Scholar
  15. Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali L, Knight TM, Pullin AS (2010) Urban greening to cool towns and cities: a systematic review of the empirical evidence. Landsc Urban Plan 97:147–155Google Scholar
  16. Bringslimark T, Hartig T, Patil GG (2007) Psychological benefits of indoor plants in workplaces: putting experimental results into context. HortScience 42:581–587Google Scholar
  17. Bringslimark T, Hartig T, Patil GG (2009) The psychological benefits of indoor plants: a critical review of the experimental literature. J Environ Psychol 29:422–433Google Scholar
  18. Browne S, Halligan P, Wade D, Taggart D (2003) Postoperative hypoxia is a contributory factor to cognitive impairment after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1061–1064Google Scholar
  19. Chang C-Y, Chen P-K (2005) Human response to window views and indoor plants in the workplace. HortScience 40:1354–1359Google Scholar
  20. Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osório ML, Carvalho I, Faria T, Pinheiro C (2002) How plants cope with water stress in the field? Photosynthesis and Growth. Ann Bot 89:907–916Google Scholar
  21. Claudio L (2011) Planting healthier indoor air. Environ Health Perspect 119:a426Google Scholar
  22. Collins CD, Bell JNB, Crews C (2000) Benzene accumulation in horticultural crops. Chemosphere 40:109–114Google Scholar
  23. Cook G, Dixon J, Leopold A (1964) Transpiration: its effects on plant leaf temperature. Science 144:546–547Google Scholar
  24. Cornejo J, Munoz F, Ma C, Stewart A (1999) Studies on the decontamination of air by plants. Ecotoxicology 8:311–320Google Scholar
  25. Cruz MD, Müller R, Bo S, Pedersen JS, Christensen JH (2014) Assessment of volatile organic compound removal by indoor plants—a novel experimental setup. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:7838–7846Google Scholar
  26. Cure JD, Acock B (1986) Crop responses to carbon dioxide doubling: a literature survey✩. Agric For Meteorol 38:127–145Google Scholar
  27. D'Alessandro F, Asdrubali F, Mencarelli N (2015) Experimental evaluation and modelling of the sound absorption properties of plants for indoor acoustic applications. Build Environ 94:913–923Google Scholar
  28. Darlington AB, Dat JF, Dixon MA (2001) The biofiltration of indoor air: air flux and temperature influences the removal of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Environ Sci Technol 35:240–246Google Scholar
  29. De Kempeneer L, Sercu B, Vanbrabant W, Van Langenhove H, Verstraete W (2004) Bioaugmentation of the phyllosphere for the removal of toluene from indoor air. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:284–288Google Scholar
  30. Delgado-Saborit JM, Aquilina NJ, Meddings C, Baker S, Vardoulakis S, Harrison RM (2009) Measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and particle associated PAH in three UK regions. Environ Sci Technol 43:4582–4588Google Scholar
  31. Deng Q, Lu C, Norbäck D, Bornehag C-G, Zhang Y, Liu W, Sundell J (2015a) Early life exposure to ambient air pollution and childhood asthma in China. Environ Res 143:83-92Google Scholar
  32. Deng Q, Lu C, Ou C, Liu W (2015b) Effects of early life exposure to outdoor air pollution and indoor renovation on childhood asthma in China. Build Environ 93:84–91Google Scholar
  33. Deng Q, Lu C, Jiang W, Zhao J, Deng L, Xiang Y (2017) Association of outdoor air pollution and indoor renovation with early childhood ear infection in China. Chemosphere 169:288–296Google Scholar
  34. Deng Q, Deng L, Lu C, Li Y, Norbäck D (2018a) Parental stress and air pollution increase childhood asthma in China. Environ Res 165:23–31Google Scholar
  35. Deng Q, Ou C, Chen J, Xiang Y (2018b) Particle deposition in tracheobronchial airways of an infant, child and adult. Sci Total Environ 612:339–346Google Scholar
  36. Dijkstra K, Pieterse ME, Pruyn A (2008) Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment: the mediating role of perceived attractiveness. Prev Med 47:279–283Google Scholar
  37. Dingle P, Tapsell P, Hu S (2000) Reducing formaldehyde exposure in office environments using plants. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 64:302–308Google Scholar
  38. Dravigne A, Waliczek TM, Lineberger R, Zajicek J (2008) The effect of live plants and window views of green spaces on employee perceptions of job satisfaction. HortScience 43:183–187Google Scholar
  39. Enoch H, Hurd R (1979) The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere on plant transpiration and water use efficiency. A study with potted carnation plants. Int J Biometeorol 23:343–351Google Scholar
  40. Evensen KH, Raanaas RK, Hagerhall CM, Johansson M, Patil GG (2015) Restorative elements at the computer workstation: a comparison of live plants and inanimate objects with and without window view. Environ Behav 47:288–303Google Scholar
  41. Ferl R, Wheeler R, Levine HG, Paul A-L (2002) Plants in space. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:258–263Google Scholar
  42. Fernández-Cañero R, Urrestarazu LP, Franco Salas A (2012) Assessment of the cooling potential of an indoor living wall using different substrates in a warm climate. Indoor Built Environ 21:642–650Google Scholar
  43. Fjeld T, Veiersted B, Sandvik L, Riise G, Levy F (1998) The effect of indoor foliage plants on health and discomfort symptoms among office workers. Indoor Built Environ 7:204–209Google Scholar
  44. Fjeld T (2000) The effect of interior planting on health and discomfort among workers and school children. HortTechnology 10:46–52Google Scholar
  45. Franchini M, Mannucci PM (2018) Mitigation of air pollution by greenness: a narrative review. Eur J Intern Med 55:1–5Google Scholar
  46. Franklin PJ (2007) Indoor air quality and respiratory health of children. Paediatr Respir Rev 8:281–286Google Scholar
  47. Garland KB, Burnett SE, Day ME, van Tersel MW (2012) Influence of substrate water content and daily light integral on photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and morphology of Heuchera americana. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 137:57–67Google Scholar
  48. Gawrońska H, Bakera B (2015) Phytoremediation of particulate matter from indoor air by Chlorophytum comosum L. plants. Air Qual Atmos Health 8:265–272Google Scholar
  49. Giese M, Bauer-Doranth U, Langebartels C, Sandermann H Jr (1994) Detoxification of formaldehyde by the spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum L.) and by soybean (Glycine max L.) cell-suspension cultures. Plant Physiol 104:1301–1309Google Scholar
  50. Godish T, Guindon C (1989) An assessment of botanical air purification as a formaldehyde mitigation measure under dynamic laboratory chamber conditions. Environ Pollut 62:13–20Google Scholar
  51. Guéguen N (2012) Dead indoor plants strengthen belief in global warming. J Environ Psychol 32:173–177Google Scholar
  52. Gust D, Moore TA, Moore AL (2009) Solar fuels via artificial photosynthesis. Acc Chem Res 42:1890–1898Google Scholar
  53. Han K-T (2009) Influence of limitedly visible leafy indoor plants on the psychology, behavior, and health of students at a junior high school in Taiwan. Environ Behav 41:658–692Google Scholar
  54. Hoelscher M-T, Nehls T, Jänicke B, Wessolek G (2016) Quantifying cooling effects of facade greening: shading transpiration and insulation. Energ Buildings 114:283–290Google Scholar
  55. Hogewoning SW, Trouwborst G, Maljaars H, Poorter H, van Ieperen W, Harbinson J (2010) Blue light dose–responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light. J Exp Bot 61:3107–3117Google Scholar
  56. House RL, Iha NYM, Coppo RL, Alibabaei L, Sherman BD, Kang P, Brennaman MK, Hoertz PG, Meyer TJ (2015) Artificial photosynthesis: where are we now? Where can we go? J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev 25:32–45Google Scholar
  57. Ignatius RW, Martin TS, Bula RJ, Morrow RC, Tibbitts TW (1991): Method and apparatus for irradiation of plants using optoelectronic devices. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  58. Irga P, Torpy F, Burchett M (2013) Can hydroculture be used to enhance the performance of indoor plants for the removal of air pollutants? Atmos Environ 77:267–271Google Scholar
  59. Jarvis P, Morison J (1981) The control of transpiration and photosynthesis by the stomata, Stomatal physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 247–279Google Scholar
  60. Jeon HS, Koh JH, Park SJ, Jee MS, Ko D-H, Hwang YJ, Min BK (2015) A monolithic and standalone solar-fuel device having comparable efficiency to photosynthesis in nature. J Mater Chem A 3:5835–5842Google Scholar
  61. Jim C (2014) Heat-sink effect and indoor warming imposed by tropical extensive green roof. Ecol Eng 62:1–12Google Scholar
  62. Jones AP (1999) Indoor air quality and health. Atmos Environ 33:4535–4564Google Scholar
  63. Kalyanasundaram K, Graetzel M (2010) Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:298–310Google Scholar
  64. Kampa M, Castanas E (2008) Human health effects of air pollution. Environ Pollut 151:362–367Google Scholar
  65. Keniger LE, Gaston KJ, Irvine KN, Fuller RA (2013) What are the benefits of interacting with nature? Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:913–935Google Scholar
  66. Kichah A, Bournet P-E, Migeon C, Boulard T (2012) Measurement and CFD simulation of microclimate characteristics and transpiration of an Impatiens pot plant crop in a greenhouse. Biosyst Eng 112:22–34Google Scholar
  67. Kil M, Kim K, Cho J, Park C (2008) Formaldehyde gas removal effects and physiological responses of Fatsia japonica and Epipremnum aureum according to various light intensity. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 26:189–196Google Scholar
  68. Kim J, Cha SH, Koo C, Tang S-K (2018) The effects of indoor plants and artificial windows in an underground environment. Build Environ 138:53–62Google Scholar
  69. Kim KJ, Kil MJ, Song JS, Yoo EH, Son K-C, Kays SJ (2008) Efficiency of volatile formaldehyde removal by indoor plants: contribution of aerial plant parts versus the root zone. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 133:521–526Google Scholar
  70. Kim KJ, Jeong MI, Lee DW, Song JS, Kim HD, Yoo EH, Jeong SJ, Han SW, Kays SJ, Lim Y-W (2010) Variation in formaldehyde removal efficiency among indoor plant species. HortScience 45:1489–1495Google Scholar
  71. Kim S-J, Hahn E-J, Heo J-W, Paek K-Y (2004) Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro. Sci Hortic 101:143–151Google Scholar
  72. Kitaya Y, Tani A, Goto E, Saito T, Takahashi H (2000) Development of a plant growth unit for growing plants over a long-term life cycle under microgravity conditions. Adv Space Res 26:281–288Google Scholar
  73. Kovats RS, Hajat S (2008) Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu Rev Public Health 29:41–55Google Scholar
  74. Larsen L, Adams J, Deal B, Kweon BS, Tyler E (1998) Plants in the workplace the effects of plant density on productivity, attitudes, and perceptions. Environ Behav 30:261–281Google Scholar
  75. Liu C, Colón BC, Ziesack M, Silver PA, Nocera DG (2016) Water splitting–biosynthetic system with CO2 reduction efficiencies exceeding photosynthesis. Science 352:1210–1213Google Scholar
  76. Liu XY, Guo SR, Xu ZG, Jiao XL, Tezuka T (2011) Regulation of chloroplast ultrastructure, cross-section anatomy of leaves, and morphology of stomata of cherry tomato by different light irradiations of light-emitting diodes. J Biotechnol 24:129–139Google Scholar
  77. Liu Y-J, Mu Y-J, Zhu Y-G, Ding H, Arens NC (2007) Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air? Atmos Environ 41:650–654Google Scholar
  78. Lohr VI, Pearson-Mims CH (1996) Particulate matter accumulation on horizontal surfaces in interiors: influence of foliage plants. Atmos Environ 30:2565–2568Google Scholar
  79. Lu C, Deng Q, Li Y, Sundell J, Norbäck D (2016) Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China. Sci Total Environ 560-561:186–196Google Scholar
  80. Mahajan P, Oliveira F, Macedo I (2008) Effect of temperature and humidity on the transpiration rate of the whole mushrooms. J Food Eng 84:281–288Google Scholar
  81. Mangone G, Kurvers SR, Luscuere PG (2014) Constructing thermal comfort: investigating the effect of vegetation on indoor thermal comfort through a four season thermal comfort quasi-experiment. Build Environ 81:410–426Google Scholar
  82. Medlyn B, Dreyer E, Ellsworth D, Forstreuter M, Harley P, Kirschbaum M, Le Roux X, Montpied P, Strassemeyer J, Walcroft A (2002) Temperature response of parameters of a biochemically based model of photosynthesis. II. A review of experimental data. Plant Cell Environ 25:1167–1179Google Scholar
  83. Medrano E, Lorenzo P, Sánchez-Guerrero MC, Montero JI (2005) Evaluation and modelling of greenhouse cucumber-crop transpiration under high and low radiation conditions. Sci Hortic 105:163–175Google Scholar
  84. Messinger J, Renger G (2008) Photosynthetic water splitting, primary processes of photosynthesis, part 2 principles and apparatus. RSCPublishing, Cambridge, pp 291–351Google Scholar
  85. Michl J (2011) Photochemical CO 2 reduction: towards an artificial leaf? Nat Chem 3:268–269Google Scholar
  86. Mishra V (2003) Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and acute respiratory illness in preschool age children in Zimbabwe. Int J Epidemiol 32:847–853Google Scholar
  87. Monica G (2013) Green symphonies: a call for studies on acoustic communication in plants. Behav Ecol 24:789–796Google Scholar
  88. Montero J, Antón A, Munoz P, Lorenzo P (2001) Transpiration from geranium grown under high temperatures and low humidities in greenhouses. Agric For Meteorol 107:323–332Google Scholar
  89. Mosaddegh MH, Jafarian A, Ghasemi A, Mosaddegh A (2014) Phytoremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene contaminated air by D. deremensis and O microdasys plants. J Environ Health Sci Eng 12:39Google Scholar
  90. Mumford J, He X, Chapman R, Harris D, Li X, Xian Y, Jiang W, Xu C, Chuang J (1987) Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China. Science 235:217–220Google Scholar
  91. Nemali KS, van Iersel MW (2004) Acclimation of wax begonia to light intensity: changes in photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll concentration. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:745–751Google Scholar
  92. Nocera DG (2012) The artificial leaf. Acc Chem Res 45:767–776Google Scholar
  93. Oh GS, Jung GJ, Seo MH, Im YB (2011) Experimental study on variations of CO 2 concentration in the presence of indoor plants and respiration of experimental animals. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 52:321–329Google Scholar
  94. Orita I, Yurimoto H, Hirai R, Kawarabayasi Y, Sakai Y, Kato N (2005) The archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii possesses a bifunctional enzyme for formaldehyde fixation via the ribulose monophosphate pathway. J Bacteriol 187:3636–3642Google Scholar
  95. Orwell RL, Wood RA, Burchett MD, Tarran J, Torpy F (2006) The potted-plant microcosm substantially reduces indoor air VOC pollution: II. Laboratory study. Water Air Soil Pollut 177:59–80Google Scholar
  96. Oyabu T, Sawada A, Onodera T, Takenaka K, Wolverton B (2003) Characteristics of potted plants for removing offensive odors. Sensors Actuators B Chem 89:131–136Google Scholar
  97. Pandey MR, Boleij J, Smith K, Wafula E (1989) Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute respiratory infection in children. Lancet 333:427–429Google Scholar
  98. Papinchak HL, Holcomb EJ, Best TO, Decoteau DR (2009) Effectiveness of houseplants in reducing the indoor air pollutant ozone. HortTechnology 19:286–290Google Scholar
  99. Park J, Ikeda K (2006) Variations of formaldehyde and VOC levels during 3 years in new and older homes. Indoor Air 16:129–135Google Scholar
  100. Park S-H, Mattson RH (2009) Ornamental indoor plants in hospital rooms enhanced health outcomes of patients recovering from surgery. J Altern Complement Med 15:975–980Google Scholar
  101. Parseh I, Teiri H, Hajizadeh Y, Ebrahimpour K (2018) Phytoremediation of benzene vapors from indoor air by Schefflera arboricola and Spathiphyllum wallisii plants. Atmos Pollut Res 9:1083–1087Google Scholar
  102. Pennisi SV, van Iersel MW (2012) Quantification of carbon assimilation of plants in simulated and in situ interiorscapes. HortScience 47:468–476Google Scholar
  103. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH (2013) Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 13:29Google Scholar
  104. Pretty J (2004) How nature contributes to mental and physical health. Spiritual Health Int 5:68–78Google Scholar
  105. Raanaas RK, Evensen KH, Rich D, Sjøstrøm G, Patil G (2011) Benefits of indoor plants on attention capacity in an office setting. J Environ Psychol 31:99–105Google Scholar
  106. Raji B, Tenpierik MJ, van den Dobbelsteen A (2015) The impact of greening systems on building energy performance: a literature review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 45:610–623Google Scholar
  107. Reddy V, Reddy K, Hodges H (1995) Carbon dioxide enrichment and temperature effects on cotton canopy photosynthesis, transpiration, and water-use efficiency. Field Crop Res 41:13–23Google Scholar
  108. Ren X, Zeng G, Tang L, Wang J, Wan J, Feng H, Song B, Huang C, Tang X (2018a) Effect of exogenous carbonaceous materials on the bioavailability of organic pollutants and their ecological risks. Soil Biol Biochem 116:70–81Google Scholar
  109. Ren X, Zeng G, Tang L, Wang J, Wan J, Liu Y, Yu J, Yi H, Ye S, Deng R (2018b) Sorption, transport and biodegradation–an insight into bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soil. Sci Total Environ 610:1154–1163Google Scholar
  110. Ringsmuth AK, Landsberg MJ, Hankamer B (2016) Can photosynthesis enable a global transition from fossil fuels to solar fuels, to mitigate climate change and fuel-supply limitations? Renew Sust Energ Rev 62:134–163Google Scholar
  111. Rinne ST, Rodas EJ, Bender BS, Rinne ML, Simpson JM, Galer-Unti R, Glickman LT (2006) Relationship of pulmonary function among women and children to indoor air pollution from biomass use in rural Ecuador. Respir Med 100:1208–1215Google Scholar
  112. Roy J, Boulard T, Kittas C, Wang S (2002) Convective and ventilation transfers in greenhouses, part 1: the greenhouse considered as a perfectly stirred tank. Biosyst Eng 83:1–20Google Scholar
  113. Ruijtenbeek K, Kessels LC, De Mey JG, Blanco CE (2003) Chronic moderate hypoxia and protein malnutrition both induce growth retardation, but have distinct effects on arterial endothelium-dependent reactivity in the chicken embryo. Pediatr Res 53:573–579Google Scholar
  114. Söderback I, Söderström M, Schälander E (2004) Horticultural therapy: the ‘healing garden’ and gardening in rehabilitation measures at Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden. Pediatr Rehabil 7:245–260Google Scholar
  115. Salt DE, Prince RC, Pickering IJ, Raskin I (1995) Mechanisms of cadmium mobility and accumulation in Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 109:1427–1433Google Scholar
  116. Sawada A, Oyabu T (2008) Purification characteristics of pothos for airborne chemicals in growing conditions and its evaluation. Atmos Environ 42:594–602Google Scholar
  117. Seginer I (1994) Transpirational cooling of a greenhouse crop with partial ground cover. Agric For Meteorol 71:265–281Google Scholar
  118. Shibata S, Suzuki N (2001) Effects of indoor foliage plants on subjects’ recovery from mental fatigue. N Am J Psychol 3:385–396Google Scholar
  119. Shibata S, Suzuki N (2002) Effects of the foliage plant on task performance and mood. J Environ Psychol 22:265–272Google Scholar
  120. Shibata S, Suzuki N (2004) Effects of an indoor plant on creative task performance and mood. Scand J Psychol 45:373–381Google Scholar
  121. Shiue A, Hu S-C, Tu M-L (2011) Particles removal by negative ionic air purifier in cleanroom. Aerosol Air Qual Res 11:179–186Google Scholar
  122. Shoemaker CA, Randall K, Relf PD, Geller ES (1992) Relationships between plants, behavior, and attitudes in an office environment. HortTechnology 2:205–206Google Scholar
  123. Silva E, Ribeiro R, Ferreira-Silva S, Viégas R, Silveira J (2010) Comparative effects of salinity and water stress on photosynthesis, water relations and growth of Jatropha curcas plants. J Arid Environ 74:1130–1137Google Scholar
  124. Sinae P, Mingi K, Munghwa Y, Myungmn O, Kicheol S (2010) Comparison of indoor CO2 removal capability of five foliage plants by photosynthesis. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 28:864–870Google Scholar
  125. Smith A, Pitt M (2011) Healthy workplaces: plantscaping for indoor environmental quality. Facilities 29:169–187Google Scholar
  126. Smith KR, Samet JM, Romieu I, Bruce N (2000) Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children. Thorax 55:518–532Google Scholar
  127. Sriprapat W, Thiravetyan P (2013) Phytoremediation of BTEX from indoor air by Zamioculcas zamiifolia. Water Air Soil Pollut 224:1–9Google Scholar
  128. Sriprapat W, Boraphech P, Thiravetyan P (2014) Factors affecting xylene-contaminated air removal by the ornamental plant Zamioculcas zamiifolia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:2603–2610Google Scholar
  129. Tang X, Bai Y, Duong A, Smith MT, Li L, Zhang L (2009) Formaldehyde in China: production, consumption, exposure levels, and health effects. Environ Int 35:1210–1224Google Scholar
  130. Tani A, Hewitt CN (2009) Uptake of aldehydes and ketones at typical indoor concentrations by houseplants. Environ Sci Technol 43:8338–8343Google Scholar
  131. Teiri H, Pourzamani H, Hajizadeh Y (2018) Phytoremediation of VOCs from indoor air by ornamental potted plants: a pilot study using a palm species under the controlled environment. Chemosphere 197:375–381Google Scholar
  132. Tenhunen J, Lange O, Gebel J, Beyschlag W, Weber J (1984) Changes in photosynthetic capacity, carboxylation efficiency, and CO2 compensation point associated with midday stomatal closure and midday depression of net CO2 exchange of leaves of Quercus suber. Planta 162:193–203Google Scholar
  133. Terashima I, Saeki T (1985) A new model for leaf photosynthesis incorporating the gradients of light environment and of photosynthetic properties of chloroplasts within a leaf. Ann Bot 56:489–499Google Scholar
  134. Tezara W, Mitchell V, Driscoll S, Lawlor D (1999) Water stress inhibits plant photosynthesis by decreasing coupling factor and ATP. Nature 401:914–917Google Scholar
  135. Tikhonov V, Tsvetkov V, Litvinova E, Sirota T, Kondrashova M (2004) Generation of negative air ions by plants upon pulsed electrical stimulation applied to soil. Russ J Plant Physiol 51:414–419Google Scholar
  136. Titus A, Rao BS, Harsha H, Ramkumar K, Srikumar B, Singh S, Chattarji S, Raju T (2007) Hypobaric hypoxia-induced dendritic atrophy of hippocampal neurons is associated with cognitive impairment in adult rats. Neuroscience 145:265–278Google Scholar
  137. Torpy F, Irga P, Burchett M (2014) Profiling indoor plants for the amelioration of high CO2 concentrations. Urban For Urban Green 13:227–233Google Scholar
  138. Treesubsuntorn C, Thiravetyan P (2012) Removal of benzene from indoor air by Dracaena sanderiana: effect of wax and stomata. Atmos Environ 57:317–321Google Scholar
  139. Ugrekhelidze D, Korte F, Kvesitadze G (1997) Uptake and transformation of benzene and toluene by plant leaves. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 37:24–29Google Scholar
  140. Van der Vliet L, Peterson C, Hale B (2007) Cd accumulation in roots and shoots of durum wheat: the roles of transpiration rate and apoplastic bypass. J Exp Bot 58:2939–2947Google Scholar
  141. Van Loy MD, Riley WJ, Daisey JM, Nazaroff WW (2001) Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air. 2. Nicotine and phenanthrene with carpet and wallboard. Environ Sci Technol 35:560–567Google Scholar
  142. Volkov AG, Ranatunga DRA (2006) Plants as environmental biosensors. Plant Signal Behav 1:105–115Google Scholar
  143. Wang HFD, Wang DN (1999) Cooling effect of ivy on a wall. Exp Heat Transfer 12:235–245Google Scholar
  144. Wang S, Boulard T (2000) Predicting the microclimate in a naturally ventilated plastic house in a Mediterranean climate. J Agric Eng Res 75:27–38Google Scholar
  145. Wilhelm C, Selmar D (2011) Energy dissipation is an essential mechanism to sustain the viability of plants: the physiological limits of improved photosynthesis. J Plant Physiol 168:79–87Google Scholar
  146. Wolkoff P, Nielsen GD (2001) Organic compounds in indoor air—their relevance for perceived indoor air quality? Atmos Environ 35:4407–4417Google Scholar
  147. Wolverton BC, Mcdonald RC (1984) Foliage plants for removing indoor air pollutants from energy-efficient homes. Econ Bot 38:224–228Google Scholar
  148. Wu CC, Lee GW (2004) Oxidation of volatile organic compounds by negative air ions. Atmos Environ 38:6287–6295Google Scholar
  149. Xu Z, Qin N, Wang J, Tong H (2010) Formaldehyde biofiltration as affected by spider plant. Bioresour Technol 101:6930–6934Google Scholar
  150. Xu Z, Wang L, Hou H (2011) Formaldehyde removal by potted plant–soil systems. J Hazard Mater 192:314–318Google Scholar
  151. Yan X, Wang H, Hou Z, Wang S, Zhang D, Xu Q, Tokola T (2015) Spatial analysis of the ecological effects of negative air ions in urban vegetated areas: a case study in Maiji, China. Urban For Urban Green 14:636–645Google Scholar
  152. Yang DS, Pennisi SV, Son K-C, Kays SJ (2009a) Screening indoor plants for volatile organic pollutant removal efficiency. HortScience 44:1377–1381Google Scholar
  153. Yang DS, Son K-C, Kays SJ (2009b) Volatile organic compounds emanating from indoor ornamental plants. HortScience 44:396–400Google Scholar
  154. Yarn K-F, Yu K-C, Huang J-M, Luo W-J, Wu P-C (2013) Utilizing a vertical garden to reduce indoor carbon dioxide in an indoor environment. Wulfenia JGoogle Scholar
  155. Zeiger E, Field C (1982) Photocontrol of the functional coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the intact leaf: blue light and PAR-dependent photosystems in guard cells. Plant Physiol 70:370–375Google Scholar
  156. Zhang D, Xiang T, Peihan L, Bao L (2011) Transgenic plants of Petunia hybrida harboring the CYP2E1 gene efficiently remove benzene and toluene pollutants and improve resistance to formaldehyde. Genet Mol Biol 34:634–639Google Scholar
  157. Zhang Y, Li C, Zhou X, Moore IIIB (2002) A simulation model linking crop growth and soil biogeochemistry for sustainable agriculture. Ecol Model 151:75–108Google Scholar
  158. Zhou J, Qin F, Su J, Liao J, Xu H (2011) Purification of formaldehyde-polluted air by indoor plants of Araceae, Agavaceae and Liliaceae. J Food Agric Environ 9:1012–1018Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Energy Science and EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.XiangYa School of Public HealthCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations