Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36368–36380 | Cite as

Characterization of reactive photoinduced species in rainwater

  • Jun Hong
  • Jia Liu
  • Li Wang
  • Shaofei Kong
  • Chen Tong
  • Jun Qin
  • Lei Chen
  • Yue Sui
  • Baoqing Li
Research Article
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

Rainfall is a highly effective and important carrier that can remove a majority of aerosol mass into land and marine ecosystems. The photochemically formed reactive species in the rainwater are likely dominant oxidants for organic and inorganic substances. Here, we collected rainwater samples from Oct. 2016 to Dec. 2016 in CUG campus (Wuhan, Hubei, China) and measured their formation rates, lifetimes, steady-state concentrations, and apparent quantum yields of reactive photoinduced species, including hydroxyl radical (HO•), H2O2, singlet oxygen (1O2), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter triplet state (3CDOM*) in the laboratory. Results showed that rainwater samples contained photochemical sources, like DOM, nitrate, heavy metals, etc. Quantification of HO• showed that rHO• (the photogeneration rate of HO•) were in the range of 1.05 × 10−10–4.56 × 10−10 M s−1, and [•OH]ss (the steady-state concentrations of OH•) were of 4.06 × 10−18–2.97 × 10−17 M for the three samples. Further investigations revealed that 10–24% of r•OH was attributed to nitrate photolysis, suggesting DOM was possibly the prevailing source of HO•. Apparent quantum yields of H2O2H2O2) correlated negatively with E2/E3 (the ratio of absorption at 250 and 365 nm), while Φ1O2 and Φ3CDOM* increased with elevated E2/E3.

Keywords

Photochemistry Reactive species Kinetics Quantification 

Notes

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China [Grant No. 2016YFA0602002], the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province [Grant No. 2017CFB423], and the Opening Fund of Teaching Laboratory of China University of Geosciences [Grant No. SKJ2016060].

References

  1. Al Housari F, Vione D, Chiron S, Barbati S (2010) Reactive photoinduced species in estuarine waters. Characterization of hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen and dissolved organic matter triplet state in natural oxidation processes. Photochem Photobiol Sci 9(1):78–86Google Scholar
  2. Anastasio C, Jordan AL (2004) Photoformation of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide in aerosol particles from Alert, Nunavut: implications for aerosol and snowpack chemistry in the Arctic. Atmos Environ 38(8):1153–1166Google Scholar
  3. Anastasio C, McGregor KG (2001) Chemistry of fog waters in California’s Central Valley: 1. In situ photoformation of hydroxyl radical and singlet molecular oxygen. Atmos Environ 35(6):1079–1089Google Scholar
  4. Anastasio C, Galbavy ES, Hutterli MA, Burkhart JF, Friel DK (2007) Photoformation of hydroxyl radical on snow grains at Summit, Greenland. Atmos Environ 41(24):5110–5121Google Scholar
  5. Bader H, Sturzenegger V, Hoigne J (1988) Photometric-method for the determination of low concentrations of hydrogen-peroxide by the peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD). Water Res 22(9):1109–1115Google Scholar
  6. Buxton GV, Greenstock CL, Helman WP, Ross AB (1988) Critical review of rate constants for reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen-atoms and hydroxyl radicals (·OH/·O) in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem Ref Data 17(2):513–886Google Scholar
  7. Canonica S (2007) Oxidation of aquatic organic contaminants induced by excited triplet states. Chimia 61(10):641–644Google Scholar
  8. Canonica S, Freiburghaus M (2001) Electron-rich phenols for probing the photochemical reactivity of freshwaters. Environ Sci Technol 35(4):690–695Google Scholar
  9. Cerqueira M, Pio C, Legrand M, Puxbaum H, Kasper-Giebl A, Afonso J, Preunkert S, Gelencser A, Fialho P (2010) Particulate carbon in precipitation at European background sites. J Aerosol Sci 41(1):51–61Google Scholar
  10. Chen W, Westerhoff P, Leenheer JA, Booksh K (2003) Fluorescence excitation - emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 37(24):5701–5710Google Scholar
  11. Chen Z, Chu L, Galbavy ES, Ram K, Anastasio C (2016) Hydroxyl radical in/on illuminated polar snow: formation rates, lifetimes, and steady-state concentrations. Atmos Chem Phys 16(15):9579–9590Google Scholar
  12. Cooper WJ, Lean DRS (1989) Hydrogen peroxide concentration in a northern lake: photochemical formation and diel variability. Environ Sci Technol 23(11):1425–1428Google Scholar
  13. Dalrymple RM, Carfagno AK, Sharpless CM (2010) Correlations between dissolved organic matter optical properties and apparent quantum yields of singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Environ Sci Technol 44(15):5824–5829Google Scholar
  14. Deister U, Warneck P, Wurzinger C (1990) OH radicals generated by NO3 photolysis in aqueous solution: competition kinetics and a study of the reaction OH + CH2(OH)SO3 . Ber Bunsen Phys Chem 94(5):594–599Google Scholar
  15. Del Vecchio R, Blough NV (2004) On the origin of the optical properties of humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 38(14):3885–3891Google Scholar
  16. George C, Ammann M, D'Anna B, Donaldson DJ, Nizkorodov SA (2015) Heterogeneous photochemistry in the atmosphere. Chem Rev 115(10):4218–4258Google Scholar
  17. Golanoski KS, Fang S, Del Vecchio R, Blough NV (2012) Investigating the mechanism of phenol photooxidation by humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 46(7):3912–3920Google Scholar
  18. Halladja S, Ter Halle A, Aguer J-P, Boulkamh A, Richard C (2007) Inhihition of humic substances mediated photooxygenation of furfuryl alcohol by 2,4,6-trimethylphenol. Evidence for reactivity of the phenol with humic triplet excited states. Environ Sci Technol 41(17):6066–6073Google Scholar
  19. Helms JR, Stubbins A, Ritchie JD, Minor EC, Kieber DJ, Mopper K (2008) Absorption spectral slopes and slope ratios as indicators of molecular weight, source, and photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Limnol Oceanogr 53(3):955–969Google Scholar
  20. Helms JR, Stubbins A, Perdue EM, Green NW, Chen H, Mopper K (2013) Photochemical bleaching of oceanic dissolved organic matter and its effect on absorption spectral slope and fluorescence. Mar Chem 155:81–91Google Scholar
  21. Herrmann H, Tilgner A, Barzaghi P, Majdik Z, Gligorovski S, Poulain L, Monod A (2005) Towards a more detailed description of tropospheric aqueous phase organic chemistry: capram 3.0. Atmos Environ 39(23):4351–4363Google Scholar
  22. Hulstrom R, Bird R, Riordan C (1985) Spectral solar irradiance data sets for selected terrestrial conditions. Sol C 15(4):365–391Google Scholar
  23. Kieber RJ, Peake B, Willey JD, Jacobs B (2001) Iron speciation and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in New Zealand rainwater. Atmos Environ 35(34):6041–6048Google Scholar
  24. Kieber RJ, Skrabal SA, Smith BJ, Willey JD (2005) Organic complexation of Fe(II) and its impact on the redox cycling of iron in rain. Environ Sci Technol 39(6):1576–1583Google Scholar
  25. Kieber RJ, Whitehead RF, Reid SN, Willey JD, Seaton PJ (2006) Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rainwater, southeastern North Carolina, USA. J Atmos Chem 54(1):21–41Google Scholar
  26. Kieber RJ, Smith J, Mullaugh KM, Southwell MW, Avery GB Jr, Willey JD (2009) Influence of dissolved organic carbon on photochemically mediated cycling of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater. J Atmos Chem 64(2–3):149–158Google Scholar
  27. Kieber RJ, Adams MB, Wiley JD, Whitehead RF, Avery GB Jr, Mullaugh KM, Mead RN (2012) Short term temporal variability in the photochemically mediated alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rainwater. Atmos Environ 50:112–119Google Scholar
  28. Lee E, Glover CM, Rosario-Ortiz FL (2013) Photochemical formation of hydroxyl radical from effluent organic matter: role of composition. Environ Sci Technol 47(21):12073–12080Google Scholar
  29. Loosmore GA, Cederwall RT (2004) Precipitation scavenging of atmospheric aerosols for emergency response applications: testing an updated model with new real-time data. Atmos Environ 38(7):993–1003Google Scholar
  30. Maizel AC, Remucal CK (2017) Molecular composition and photochemical reactivity of size-fractionated dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 51(4):2113–2123Google Scholar
  31. Mark G, Korth HG, Schuchmann HP, vonSonntag C (1996) The photochemistry of aqueous nitrate ion revisited. J Photoch Photobio A 101(2–3):89–103Google Scholar
  32. Mcneill K, Canonica S (2016) Triplet state dissolved organic matter in aquatic photochemistry: reaction mechanisms, substrate scope, and photophysical properties. Environ Sci Proc Impacts 18(11):1381Google Scholar
  33. Miller CJ, Rose AL, Waite TD (2013) Hydroxyl radical production by H2O2-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) complexed by Suwannee River fulvic acid under circumneutral freshwater conditions. Environ Sci Technol 47(2):829–835Google Scholar
  34. Minella M, Merlo MP, Maurino V, Minero C, Vione D (2013) Transformation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and furfuryl alcohol, photosensitised by Aldrich humic acids subject to different filtration procedures. Chemosphere 90(2):306–311Google Scholar
  35. Minero C, Chiron S, Falletti G, Maurino V, Pelizzetti E, Ajassa R, Carlotti ME, Vione D (2007) Photochemincal processes involving nitrite in surface water samples. Aquat Sci 69(1):71–85Google Scholar
  36. Mopper K, Zhou XL (1990) Hydroxyl radical photoproduction in the sea and its potential impact on marine processes. Science 250(4981):661–664Google Scholar
  37. Mostafa S, Rosario-Ortiz FL (2013) Singlet oxygen formation from wastewater organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 47(15):8179–8186Google Scholar
  38. Motohashi N, Saito Y (1993) Competitive measurement of rate constants for hydroxyl radical reactions using radiolytic hydroxylation of benzoate. Chem Pharm Bull 41(10):1842–1845Google Scholar
  39. Mullaugh KM, Kieber RJ, Willey JD, Avery GB Jr (2011) Long-term temporal variability in hydrogen peroxide concentrations in Wilmington, North Carolina USA rainwater. Environ Sci Technol 45(22):9538–9542Google Scholar
  40. O'Sullivan DW, Neale PJ, Coffin RB, Boyd TJ, Osburn SL (2005) Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide in coastal waters. Mar Chem 97(1–2):14–33Google Scholar
  41. Page SE, Sander M, Arnold WA, McNeill K (2012) Hydroxyl radical formation upon oxidation of reduced humic acids by oxygen in the dark. Environ Sci Technol 46(3):1590–1597Google Scholar
  42. Richard LE, Peake BM, Rusak SA, Cooper WJ, Burritt DJ (2007) Production and decomposition dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in freshwater. Environ Chem 4(1):49–54Google Scholar
  43. Rodgers MAJ, Snowden PT (1982) Lifetime of O2(1delta-g) in liquid water as determined by time-resolved infrared luminescence measurements. J Am Chem Soc 104(20):5541–5543Google Scholar
  44. Rosarioortiz FL, Canonica S (2016) Probe compounds to assess the photochemical activity of dissolved organic matter [J]. Environ Sci Technol 50(23): 12532-12547Google Scholar
  45. Sakugawa H, Kaplan IR, Shepard LS (1993) Measurements of H2O2, aldehydes and organic-acids in Los Angeles rainwater: their sources and deposition rates. Atmos Environ Part B Urban Atmos 27(2):203–219Google Scholar
  46. Salve PR, Lohkare H, Gobre T, Bodhe G, Krupadam RJ, Ramteke DS, Wate SR (2012) Characterization of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rainwater using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(2):215–218Google Scholar
  47. Sharpless CM, Blough NV (2014) The importance of charge-transfer interactions in determining chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) optical and photochemical properties. Environ Sci Proc Impacts 16(4):654–671Google Scholar
  48. Sharpless CM, Aeschbacher M, Page SE, Wenk J, Sander M, McNeill K (2014) Photooxidation-induced changes in optical, electrochemical, and photochemical properties of humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 48(5):2688–2696Google Scholar
  49. Takeda K, Takedoi H, Yamaji S, Ohta K, Sakugawa H (2004) Determination of hydroxyl radical photoproduction rates in natural waters. Anal Sci 20(1):153–158Google Scholar
  50. Timko SA, Romera-Castillo C, Jaffe R, Cooper WJ (2014) Photo-reactivity of natural dissolved organic matter from fresh to marine waters in the Florida Everglades, USA. Environ Sci Proc Impacts 16(4):866–878Google Scholar
  51. Tong M, Yuan S, Ma S, Jin M, Liu D, Cheng D, Liu X, Gan Y, Wang Y (2016) Production of abundant hydroxyl radicals from oxygenation of subsurface sediments. Environ Sci Technol 50(1):214–221Google Scholar
  52. Tratnyek PG, Hoigne J (1994) Photooxidation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol in aqueous laboratory solutions and natural-waters: kinetics of reaction with singlet oxygen. J Photoch Photobio A 84(2):153–160Google Scholar
  53. Twardowski MS, Boss E, Sullivan JM, Donaghay PL (2004) Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Mar Chem 89(1–4):69–88Google Scholar
  54. Vione D, Falletti G, Maurino V, Minero C, Pelizzetti E, Malandrino M, Ajassa R, Olariu RI, Arsene C (2006) Sources and sinks of hydroxyl radicals upon irradiation of natural water samples. Environ Sci Technol 40(12):3775–3781Google Scholar
  55. Vione D, Bagnus D, Maurino V, Minero C (2010) Quantification of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals upon UV irradiation of surface water. Environ Chem Lett 8(2):193–198Google Scholar
  56. Voelker BM, Sulzberger B (1996) Effects of fulvic acid on Fe(II) oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. Environ Sci Technol 30(4):1106–1114Google Scholar
  57. Voelker BM, Morel FMM, Sulzberger B (1997) Iron redox cycling in surface waters: effects of humic substances and light. Environ Sci Technol 31(4):1004–1011Google Scholar
  58. Warneck P, Wurzinger C (1988) Product apparent quantum yields for the 305 nm photodecomposition of NO3 in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem 92(22):6278–6283Google Scholar
  59. Weishaar JL, Aiken GR, Bergamaschi BA, Fram MS, Fujii R, Mopper K (2003) Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environ Sci Technol 37(20):4702–4708Google Scholar
  60. Wilkinson F, Helman WP, Ross AB (1995) Rate constants for the decay and reactions of the lowest electronically excited singlet-state of molecular-oxygen in solution - an expanded and revised compilation. J Phys Chem Ref Data 24(2):663–1021Google Scholar
  61. Witkowska A, Lewandowska A, Falkowska LM (2016) Parallel measurements of organic and elemental carbon dry (PM1, PM2.5) and wet (rain, snow, mixed) deposition into the Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 104(1–2):303–312Google Scholar
  62. Zeng T, Arnold WA (2013) Pesticide photolysis in prairie potholes: probing photosensitized processes. Environ Sci Technol 47(13):6735–6745Google Scholar
  63. Zepp RG, Wolfe NL, Baughman GL, Hollis RC (1977) Single oxygen in natural waters. Nature 267(2):421–423Google Scholar
  64. Zhang D, Yan S, Song W (2014) Photochemically induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from effluent organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 48(21):12645–12653Google Scholar
  65. Zhou XL, Mopper K (1990) Determination of photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in seawater and freshwater. Mar Chem 30(1–3):71–88Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Hong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jia Liu
    • 1
  • Li Wang
    • 1
  • Shaofei Kong
    • 3
  • Chen Tong
    • 1
  • Jun Qin
    • 3
  • Lei Chen
    • 3
  • Yue Sui
    • 3
  • Baoqing Li
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Basin Hydrology and Wetland Eco-restoration, School of Environmental StudiesChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of EducationChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Atmosphere sciences, School of Environmental StudiesChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Faculty of Earth ResourcesChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations