Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36368–36380 | Cite as

Characterization of reactive photoinduced species in rainwater

  • Jun HongEmail author
  • Jia Liu
  • Li Wang
  • Shaofei Kong
  • Chen Tong
  • Jun Qin
  • Lei Chen
  • Yue Sui
  • Baoqing Li
Research Article


Rainfall is a highly effective and important carrier that can remove a majority of aerosol mass into land and marine ecosystems. The photochemically formed reactive species in the rainwater are likely dominant oxidants for organic and inorganic substances. Here, we collected rainwater samples from Oct. 2016 to Dec. 2016 in CUG campus (Wuhan, Hubei, China) and measured their formation rates, lifetimes, steady-state concentrations, and apparent quantum yields of reactive photoinduced species, including hydroxyl radical (HO•), H2O2, singlet oxygen (1O2), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter triplet state (3CDOM*) in the laboratory. Results showed that rainwater samples contained photochemical sources, like DOM, nitrate, heavy metals, etc. Quantification of HO• showed that rHO• (the photogeneration rate of HO•) were in the range of 1.05 × 10−10–4.56 × 10−10 M s−1, and [•OH]ss (the steady-state concentrations of OH•) were of 4.06 × 10−18–2.97 × 10−17 M for the three samples. Further investigations revealed that 10–24% of r•OH was attributed to nitrate photolysis, suggesting DOM was possibly the prevailing source of HO•. Apparent quantum yields of H2O2H2O2) correlated negatively with E2/E3 (the ratio of absorption at 250 and 365 nm), while Φ1O2 and Φ3CDOM* increased with elevated E2/E3.


Photochemistry Reactive species Kinetics Quantification 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China [Grant No. 2016YFA0602002], the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province [Grant No. 2017CFB423], and the Opening Fund of Teaching Laboratory of China University of Geosciences [Grant No. SKJ2016060].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Hong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jia Liu
    • 1
  • Li Wang
    • 1
  • Shaofei Kong
    • 3
  • Chen Tong
    • 1
  • Jun Qin
    • 3
  • Lei Chen
    • 3
  • Yue Sui
    • 3
  • Baoqing Li
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Basin Hydrology and Wetland Eco-restoration, School of Environmental StudiesChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of EducationChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Atmosphere sciences, School of Environmental StudiesChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Faculty of Earth ResourcesChina University of Geosciences (Wuhan)WuhanPeople’s Republic of China

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