Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 36064–36086 | Cite as

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human breast milk and current analytical methods

  • Linda R. Macheka-TendenguwoEmail author
  • Joshua O. Olowoyo
  • Liziwe L. Mugivhisa
  • Ovokeroye A. Abafe
Review Article


Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have since become a major health concern as they have been reportedly found in human tissues, blood and breast milk. The main aim of the study was to review the current data on PFASs in human breast milk, including the challenges of analysis as well as the possible modes of transfer from maternal blood. In this paper, previously published data on the concentrations of PFASs in human breast milk from around the world were reviewed and summarised. Eligible studies with reference lists published before 1 June 2017 were included by searching several databases (including Scopus, ScienceOpen and SciFinder). From this search, studies with the number of participants in each study ranging from 2 to 1237 were identified. The review indicated that based on the structural profiles and concentration levels, there was variation in the geographical distribution of these compounds in breast milk. Although there are no recorded investigations on the modes of transfer from maternal blood to breast milk, literature suggests that the PFASs tend to be transferred through binding to various proteins. The review also examined the different sample preparation and analytical methods employed to measure the concentrations of PFASs in human breast milk. This showed that solid phase extraction was the most common extraction method. After extraction, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was the most common analysis method. Since several of these methods were initially dedicated to monitoring PFASs in food and water, they demonstrate some limitations with regard to specificity and sensitivity to human fluids. Additionally, there are currently no published records of certified reference materials and/or proficiency scheme devoted to standardising PFAS concentrations in breast milk.


Perfluoroalkyl substances Perfluorooctanoic acid Perfluorooctane sulphonate Biomonitoring Human breast milk 


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2015) Draft Toxicological Profile of Perfluoroalkyls, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health ServiceGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander BH, Olsen GW, Burris JM, Mandel JH, Mandel JS (2003) Mortality of employees of a perfluorooctanesulphonyl fluoride manufacturing facility. Occup Environ Med 60:722–729Google Scholar
  3. Andersen ME, Butenhoff JL, Chang SH, Farrar DG, Kennedy GL Jr, Lau C, Olsen GW, Seed J, Wallace KB (2008) Perfluoroalkyl acids and related chemistries--toxicokinetics and modes of action. Toxicol Sci 102(1):3–14Google Scholar
  4. Apelberg B, Goldman L, Calafat A (2007) Determinants of fetal exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Baltimore, Maryland. Environ Sci Tech 41(11):3891–3897Google Scholar
  5. Barbarossa A, Masetti R, Gazzotti T, Zama D, Astolfi A, Veyrand B, Pession A, Pagliuca G (2013) Perfluoroalkyl substances in human milk: a first survey in Italy. Environ Int 51:27–30Google Scholar
  6. Beare-Rogers J, Dieffenbacher A, Holm JV (2001) Lexicon of lipid nutrition (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 73(4):685–744Google Scholar
  7. Beesoon S, Webster GM, Shoeib M, Harner T, Benskin JP, Martin JW (2011) Isomer profiles of perfluorochemicals in matched maternal, cord, and house dust samples: manufacturing sources and transplacental transfer. Environ Health Perspect 119(11):1659–1664Google Scholar
  8. Bernsmann T, Fürst P (2008) Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human milk. Organohalogen Compd 70:718–721Google Scholar
  9. Bhhatarai B, Gramatica P (2010) Prediction of aqueous solubility, vapor pressure and critical micelle concentration for aquatic partitioning of perfluorinated chemicals. Environ Sci Tech 45:8120–8128Google Scholar
  10. Biegel L, Hurrt M, Frame S, O’Connor J, Cook J (2001) Mechanisms of extrahepatic tumor induction by peroxisome proliferators in male CD rats. Toxicol Sci 60:44–55Google Scholar
  11. Black RF (1996) Transmission of HIV-1 in the breast-feeding process. J Am Diet Assoc 96:267–274Google Scholar
  12. Brink A, Lutz U, Volkel W, Lutz WK (2006) Simultaneous determination of O6-methyl-20-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-20-deoxyguanosine, and 1,N6-etheno-20-deoxyadenosine in DNA using on-line sample preparation by HPLC column switching coupled to ESI-MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 830:255–261Google Scholar
  13. Buck RC, Franklin J, Berger U, Conder JM, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, Jensen AA, Kannan K, Mabury SA, van Leeuwen SPJ (2011) Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment: terminology, classification, and origins. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7(4):513–541Google Scholar
  14. Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW, Pfahles-Hutchens A (2006) The applicability of biomonitoring data for perfluorooctanesulfonate to the environmental public health continuum. Environ Health Perspect 114(11):1776–1782Google Scholar
  15. Calafat AM, Needham LL, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Tully JS, Aguilar-Villalobos M et al (2006) Perfluorinated chemicals in selected residents of the American continent. Chemosphere 63:490–496Google Scholar
  16. Casey KA (2005) Chlorpyrifos in human breast milk? dissertation, University of TennesseeGoogle Scholar
  17. ChemicalBook (2012) Product Chemical Properties Available at: ChemicalBook
  18. Ding G, Peijnenburg WJGM (2013) Physicochemical properties and aquatic toxicity of poly- and perfluorinated compound. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 43(6):598–678Google Scholar
  19. Dufková V, Čabala R, Maradová D, Štícha M (2009) A fast derivatization procedure for gas chromatographic analysis of perfluorinated organic acids. J Chromatogr A 1216(49):8659–8664Google Scholar
  20. Dufková V, Čabala R, Ševčík V (2012) Determination of C 5–C 12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in riverwater samples in the Czech Republic by GC–MS after SPE preconcentration. Chemosphere 87(5):463–469Google Scholar
  21. ECHA – European Chemicals Agency (2015). Opinion of the Committee for Risk Assessment on an Annex XV dossier proposing restrictions of the manufacture, placing on the market or use of a substance within the EU. Screening assessment perfluorooctanoic acid , its salts, and its precursors. ECHA/RAC/RES-O-0000006229-70-02/F.
  22. Enke CG (2007) A predictive model for matrix and analyte effects in electrospray ionization of singly-charged ionic analytes. Anal Chem 69:4885–4893Google Scholar
  23. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2012). Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Fluorinated Telomers. Available: (Accessed 19 September 2017)
  24. Ericson I, Marti-Cid R, Nadal M, Van Bavel B, Lindstrom G, Domingo JL (2008) Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market. J Agric Food Chem 56:1787–1794Google Scholar
  25. Fang X, Zhang L, Feng Y, Zhao Y, Dai J (2008) Immunotoxic effects of perfluorononanoic acid on BALB/c mice. Toxicol Sci 105(2):312–321Google Scholar
  26. Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Völkel W, Wilhelm M, Twardella D (2010) Perfluorinated comounds-exposure assessment for the general population in western countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212:239–270Google Scholar
  27. Fujii S, Polprasert C, Tanaka S, Lien NPH, Qiu Y (2007) New POPs in the water environment: distribution, bioaccumulation and treatment of perfluorinated compounds – a review paper. J Water Supply Res Technol 56(5):313–326Google Scholar
  28. Fujii Y, Yan J, Harada KH, Hitomi T, Yang H, Wang P, Koizumi A (2012) Levels and profiles of long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk and infant formulas in East Asia. Chemosphere 86(3):315–321Google Scholar
  29. Furdui V, Stock N, Ellis DA, Butt CM, Whittle M, Crozier PW, Reiner EJ, Muir DCG, Mabury S (2007) Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in lake trout from the Great Lakes. Environ Sci Tech 41:1554–1559Google Scholar
  30. German Federal Environmental Agency (2009) Do without per- and polyfluorinated chemicals and prevent their discharge into the environmentGoogle Scholar
  31. Giesy JP, Naile JE, Khim JS, Jones PD, Newsted JL (2010) Aquatic toxicology of Perfluorinated chemicals. In: Whitacre DM (ed) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol 202. Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  32. Gu C, Jiang G, Szilasie R, Hassan S, Zhang A, Sanders M (2010) Sensitive and accurate quantitation of perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk using selected reaction monitoring assays by LC/ MS/ MS. Thermo fisher scientific. San Jose, CAGoogle Scholar
  33. Guerranti C, Perra G, Corsolini S, Focardi SE (2013) Pilot study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in selected foodstuffs and human milk from Italy. Food Chem 140:197–203Google Scholar
  34. Guzmán MM, Clementini C, Pérez-Cárceles MD, Rejón SJ, Cascone A, Martellini T, Guerranti C, Cincinelli A (2016) Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake. Sci Total Environ 544:595–600Google Scholar
  35. Haddow JE, Palomaski GE, Allan WC, Williams JR, Knight GJ, Gagnon J, O’Heir CE, Mitchell ML, Hermos RJ, Waisbren SE (1999) Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. N Engl J Med 341:549–555Google Scholar
  36. Hamm MP, Cherry NM, Chan E, Martin JW, Burstyn I (2010) Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 20:589–597Google Scholar
  37. Han X, Snow TA, Kemper RA, Jepson GW (2003) Binding of perfluorooctanoic acid to rat and human plasma proteins. Chem Res Toxicol 16:775–781Google Scholar
  38. Hanssen L, Rollin H, Øyvind Odland J, Moeb MK, Sandangerab TM (2010) Perfluorinated compounds in maternal serum and cord blood from selected areas of South Africa: results of a pilot study. J Environ Monit 12:1355–1361Google Scholar
  39. Harada K, Saito N, Sasaki K, Inoue K, Koizumi A (2003) Perfluorooctane sulfonate contamination of drinking water in the Tama River, Japan: estimated effects on resident serum levels. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:31–36Google Scholar
  40. Haug LS, Thomsen C, Becher G (2009) A sensitive method for determination of a broad range of perfluorinated compounds in serum suitable for large-scale human biomonitoring. J Chromatogr A 1216(3):385–393Google Scholar
  41. Haug LS, Huber S, Schlabach M, Becher G, Thomsen C (2011) Investigation on per- and polyfluorinated compounds in paired samples of house dust and indoor air from Norwegian homes. Environ Sci Tech 45:7991–7998Google Scholar
  42. Haynes, W.M. (ed.) (2015) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 95th Edition. CRC press LLC, Boca Raton, p. 3–436Google Scholar
  43. Hinderliter PM, Mylchreest E, Gannon SA, Butenhoff JL, Kennedy GL (2005) Perfluorooctanoate: placental and lactational transport pharmacokinetics in rats. Toxicology 211:139–148Google Scholar
  44. Hoffman K, Vieira V, Webster T, White R (2009) Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in U.S. children aged 12-15 years. Abstracts: ISEE 21st annual conference, Dublin, Ireland, Aug 25-29, 2009: poster presentation. Epidemiology 20 (6): S70Google Scholar
  45. Hölzer J, Midasch O, Rauchfuss K, Kraft M, Reupert R, Angerer J, Kleeschulte P, Marschall N, Wilhelm M (2008) Biomonitoring of perfluorinated compounds in children and adults exposed to perfluorooctanoate-contaminated drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 116:651–657Google Scholar
  46. Houde M, Czub G, Small JM, Backus S, Wang XW, Alaee M, Muir DCG (2008) Fractionation and bioaccumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in a Lake Ontario food web. Environ Sci Technol 42:9397–9403Google Scholar
  47. Hu J, Yu J (2010) An LC-MS-MS method for the determination of perfluorinated surfactants in environmental matrices. Chromatographia 72:411–416Google Scholar
  48. Inoue K, Okada F, Ito R (2004) Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in human maternal and cord blood samples: assessment of PFOS exposure in a susceptible population during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 112(11):1204–1207Google Scholar
  49. Jennes R (1979) The composition of milk. Semin Perinatol 3(3):225–239Google Scholar
  50. Jones PD, Hu W, de Coen W, Newsted JL, Giesy JP (2003) Binding of perfluorinated fatty acids to serum proteins. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:2639–2649Google Scholar
  51. Jones-Lepp TL, Alvarez DA, Petty JD, Huckins JN (2004) Polar organic chemical integrative sampling (POCIS) and LC-ES/ITMS for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs treated sewage effluent. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47:427–439Google Scholar
  52. Kadar H, Veyrand B, Barbarossa A, Pagliuca G, Legrand A, Bosher C et al (2011) Development of an analytical strategy based on liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry for measuring perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk: application to the generation of preliminary data regarding perinatal exposure in France. Chemosphere 85:473–480Google Scholar
  53. Kang H, Choi K, Lee HS, Kim DH, Park NY, Kim S, Kho Y (2016) Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFASAs in breast milk among Korean women: current status and potential challenges. Environ Res 148:351–359Google Scholar
  54. Kannan K, Corsolini S, Fillmann G, Kumar KS, Loganathan BG, Mohd MA, Olivero J, Van Wouwe N, Yang JH, Aldous KM (2004) Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries. Environ Sci Tech 38:4489–4495Google Scholar
  55. Kärrman A, Ericson I, van Bavel B, Darnerud PO, Aune M, Glynn A, Lignall S, Lindström G (2007) Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden. Environ Health Perspect 15(2):225–230Google Scholar
  56. Kärrman A, Domingo JL, Llebaria X, Nadal M, Bigas E, van Bavel B, Lindström G (2010) Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 17:750–758Google Scholar
  57. Kim S-K, Lee KT, Kang CS, Tao L, Kannan K, Kim K-R, Kim C-K, Lee JS, Park PS, Yoo WY, Ha JY, Shin Y-S, Lee J-H (2011) Distribution of perfluorochemicals between sera and milk from the same mothers and implications for prenatal and postnatal exposures. Environ Pollut 159:169–174Google Scholar
  58. Kishi R, Araki A, Minatoya M, Hanaoka T, Miyashita C, Itoh S et al (2017) The Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and Children’s health: cohort profile— updated 2017. Environ Health Prev Med 22:46Google Scholar
  59. Kissa E (1994) Fluorinated surfactants. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Kissa E (2001) Fluorinated surfactants and repellents (2nd edition revised and expanded). Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Kosswig K (2000) Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic. Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 7th ed. (1999-2015). John Wiley & Sons. Online Posting Date: Jun 15, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Kubwabo C, Kosarac I, Lalonde K (2013) Determination of selected perfluorinated compounds and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants in human milk. Chemosphere 91:771–777Google Scholar
  63. Kuklenyik Z, Reich JA, Tully JS, Needham LL, Calafat AM (2004) Automated solid – phase extraction and measurement of perfluorinated organic acids and amides in human serum and milk. Environ Sci Technol 38:3698–3704Google Scholar
  64. Lankova D, Lacina O, Pulkrabova J, Hajslova J (2013) The determination of perfluoroalkyl substances, brominated flame retardants and their metabolites in human breast milk and infant formula. Talanta 117:318–325Google Scholar
  65. Larsen BS, Kaiser MA (2007) Challenges in perfluorocarboxylic acid measurements. Anal Chem 79:3966–3973Google Scholar
  66. Lau C, Thibodeux J, Hanson R (2006) Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse. Toxicol Sci 90(2):510–518Google Scholar
  67. Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfhales-Hutchens A, Seed J (2007) Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99:366–394Google Scholar
  68. Liu JY, Li JG, Zhou PP, Zhao YF, Wu YN (2008) A modified method for determination of perfluoroalkycarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids in human milk by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Organohalogen Compd 70:2332–2335 Accessible at (Accessed 05 October 2017)Google Scholar
  69. Liu J, Li J, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Lei Z, Wu Y (2010) The occurrence of perfluorinated alkyl compounds in human milk from different regions of China. Environ Int 36:433–438Google Scholar
  70. Liu J, Li J, Liu Y, Chan HM, Zhao Y, Cai Z, Wu Y (2011) Comparison on gestation and lactation exposure of perfluorinated compounds for newborns. Environ Int 37:1206–1212Google Scholar
  71. Lorca M, Farré M, Picó Y, Teijón ML, Alvarez JC, Barceló D (2010) Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food. Environ Int 36:584–592Google Scholar
  72. Lorenzo M, Farré M, Blasco C, Onghena M, Picó Y, Barceló D (2016) Perfluoroalkyl substances in breast milk, infant formula and baby food from Valencian community (Spain). Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manage 6:108–115Google Scholar
  73. Loveless SE, Finlay C, Everds NE, Frame SR, Gillies PJ, O’Connor JC et al (2006) Comparative responses of rats and mice exposed to linear/branched, linear, or branched ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO). Toxicology 220(2–3):203–217Google Scholar
  74. Mabury S (2005) Chemical personality of fluorinated organics. Presentation at FLUOROS 2005: International symposium on fluorinated alkyl organics in the environment. Toronto, Canada, available online:
  75. MacManus-Spencer LA, Tse ML, Herbert PC, Bischel HB, Luthy RG (2010) Binding of perfluorocarboxylates to serum albumin: a comparison of analytical methods. Anal Chem 82(3):974–981Google Scholar
  76. Martin JW, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Muir DC (2003) Dietary accumulation of perfluorinated acids in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Chem 22:189–195Google Scholar
  77. Martin JW, Kannan K, Berger U, Pim de Voogt P, Field J, Franklin J, Giesy JP et al (2004) Analytical challenges hamper perfluoroalkyl research. Environ Sci Tech 38:248A–255AGoogle Scholar
  78. McManaman JL (2014) Lipid transport in the lactating mammary gland. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 19(1):35–42Google Scholar
  79. Mondal D, Hernandez Weldon R, Armstrong BG, Gibson LJ, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Shin HM, Fletcher T (2014) Breast feeding: a potential excretion route for mothers and implications for infant exposure to perfloroalkyl acids. Environ Health Perspect 122(2):187–192Google Scholar
  80. Mosch C, Kiranoglu M, Fromme H, Volkel W (2010) Simultaneous quantitation of perfluoroalkyl acids in human serum and breast milk using on-line sample preparation by HPLC column switching coupled to ESI-MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 878:2652–2658Google Scholar
  81. Nakata A, Saito M, Iwasaki Y, Ito R, Kishi R, Nakazawa H (2009) Migration from quantitative and maternal blood in milk perfluoro compound. Bunseki Kagaku 58(8):653–659Google Scholar
  82. Nelson JW, Hatch EE, Webster TF (2010) Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cholesterol, body weight, and insulin resistance in the general U.S population. Environ Health Perspect 118(2):197–202Google Scholar
  83. Nutrition Information Centre of the University of Stellenbosch (NICUS) (2006) Feeding babies: Birth to 6 months. (Accessed 14 March 2017)
  84. Ode A, Källén K, Gustafsson P, Rylander L, Jönsson BAG, Olofsson P, Ivarsson SA, Lindh CH, Rignell-Hydbom A (2014) Fetal Exposure to Perfluorinated Compounds and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood. PLoS One 9(4):e95891. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ohmori K, Kudo N, Katayama K, Kawashima Y (2003) Comparison of the toxicokinetics between perfluorocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain length. Toxicology 184:135–140Google Scholar
  86. Okada E, Sasaki S, Kashino I, Matsuura H, Miyashita C, Kobayashi S et al (2014) Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and allergic diseases in early childhood. Environ Int 65:127–134Google Scholar
  87. Okáľová Z (2014) Determination of perfluorinated organic acids in soil by gas chromatography. Dissertation, University of PragueGoogle Scholar
  88. Olsen GW, Zobel LR (2007) Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical production workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:231–246Google Scholar
  89. Olsen GW, Church TR, Miller JP, Burris JM, Hansen KJ, Lundberg JK et al (2003) Perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in the serum of American Red Cross blood donors. Environ Health Perspect 111:1892–1901Google Scholar
  90. Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, Froehlich JW, Seacat AM, Butenhoff JL (2007) Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect 115:1298–1305Google Scholar
  91. Olsen GW, Mair DC, Church TR, Ellefson ME, Reagen WK, Boyd TM et al (2008) Decline in perflorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000–2006. Environ Sci Tech 42(13):4989–4995Google Scholar
  92. Orata F, Quinete N, Wilken RD (2009) Long chain perfluorinated alkyl acids derivatisation and identification in biota and abiota matrices using gas chromatography. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:630–635Google Scholar
  93. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2005) Results of survey on production and use of PFOS, PFAS and PFOA, related substances and products/mixtures containing these substances. ENV/JM/MONO (2005)1. OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications. Series on Risk Management No. 19Google Scholar
  94. Peters T Jr (1985) Serum albumin. Adv Protein Chem 37:161–245Google Scholar
  95. Reagen WK, Ellefson ME, Kannan K, Giesy JP (2008) Comparison of extraction and quantification methods of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma, serum, and whole blood. Anal Chim Acta 628:214–221Google Scholar
  96. Rodriguez CE, Setzer RW, Barton HA (2009) Pharmacokinetic modeling of perfluorooctanoic acid during gestation and lactation in the mouse. Reprod Toxicol 27:373–386Google Scholar
  97. Roosens L, D’Hollander W, Bervoets L, Reynders H, van Campenhout K, Cornelis C, van Den Heuvel R, Koppen G, Covaci A (2010) Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk. Environ Pollut 158:2546–2552Google Scholar
  98. Savu P (2000) Fluorine-containing polymers, perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids. Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. (1999-2016). John Wiley & Sons. Online Posting Date: Dec 4, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Scheringer M, Trudel D, Horowitz L, Wormuth M, Cousins IT, Hungenbühler K (2007) Konsumentenexposition gegenüber PFOS und PFOA. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol 14:32–36Google Scholar
  100. Schiessel D, Krepich S (2017) Analysis of Perflorinated compounds (PFASs) in aqueous matrices, evaluating various online SPE sorbents by LC-MS/MS. The NELAC Institute poster presentation:
  101. Shoeib M, Harner T, Vlahos P (2006) Perfluorinated chemicals in the Arctic atmosphere. Environ Sci Tech 40:7577–7583Google Scholar
  102. Slotkin TA, MacKillop EA, Meln RL, Thayer KA, Seidler FJ (2008) Developmental Neurotoxicity of Perfluorinated Chemicals Modeled in Vitro. Environ Health Perspect 116(6):716–722Google Scholar
  103. So MK, Yamashita N, Taniyasu S, Jiang Q, Giesy JP, Chen K et al (2006) Health risks in infants associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from Zhoushan, China. Environ Sci Tech 40:2924–2929Google Scholar
  104. Stahl T, Heyn J, Thiele H, Hüther J, Failing K, Georgii S, Brunn H (2009) Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plants. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:289–298Google Scholar
  105. Stahl T, Mattern D, Brunn H (2011) Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds. Environ Sci Euro 23:38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Steenland K, Jin C, MacNeil J, Lally C, Ducatman A, Vieira V, Fletcher T (2009) Predictors of PFOA levels in a community surrounding a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect 117:103–108Google Scholar
  107. Suchenwirth, R. H. R., Jurling, H., Huppmann, R., Bucking, M. (2006) Perfluorierte Alkyl-Substanzen (PFAS) in der Muttermilch. Bericht des NLGA. Online: /http://www.nlga.niedersachsen.deS (Accessed 14 March 2017)
  108. Sun TF, Xiang L, Chen L, Xiao T, Mo CH, Li YW, Cai QY, Hu GC, He DC (2017) Research progresses of determination of perfluorinated compounds in environmental water and solid samples. Chin J Anal Chem 45(4):601–610Google Scholar
  109. Sündstrom M, Ehresman DJ, Bignert A, Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW, Chang SC et al (2011) A temporal trend study (1972–2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ Int 37:178–183Google Scholar
  110. Taniyasu S, Kannan K, So MK, Gulkowska A, Sinclair E, Okazawa T, Yamashita N (2005) A method for the analysis of fluorotelomer alcohols, fluorotelomer acids, and short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in water and biota. J Chromatogr A 1093:89–97Google Scholar
  111. Tao L, Kannan K, Wong CM, Arcaro AF, Butenhoff JL (2008a) Perfluorinated compounds in human milk from Massachusetts, U.S.A. Environ Sci Tech 42:3096–3101Google Scholar
  112. Tao L, Ma J, Kunisue T, Libelo EL, Tanabe S, Kannan K (2008b) Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States. Environ Sci Tech 42:8597–8602Google Scholar
  113. Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Barbee BD, Richards JH, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA, Lau C (2003) Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74:369–381Google Scholar
  114. Thomsen C, Haug LS, Stigum H, Frøshaug M, Broadwell SL, Becher G (2010) Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation. Environ Sci Tech 44:9550–9556Google Scholar
  115. Tittlemier SA, Pepper K, Seymour C, Moisey J, Bronson R, Cao XL, Dabeka RW (2007) Dietary exposure of Canadians to perfluorinated carboxylates and perfluorooctane sulfonate via consumption of meat, fish, fast foods, and food items prepared in their packaging. J Agric Food Chem 55:3203–3210Google Scholar
  116. Trojanowicz M, Koc M (2013) Recent developments in methods for analysis of perfluorinated persistent pollutants. Microchim Acta 180:957–971Google Scholar
  117. Trojanowicz M, Musijowski J, Koc M, Donten MA (2011) Determination of total organic fluorine (TOF) in environmental samples using flow-injection and chromatographic methods. Anal Methods 3:1039–1045Google Scholar
  118. van Leeuwen SPJ, de Boer J (2007) Extraction and clean-up strategies for the analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in environmental and human matrices. J Chromatogr A 1153:172–185Google Scholar
  119. van Leeuwen SPJ, Swart K, van der Veen I, de Boer J (2008) Significant improvements in the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in water and fish: Results from an interlaboratory method evaluation study Institute for Environmental Studies Report 2008Google Scholar
  120. Villagrasa M, de Alda ML, Barceló D (2006) Environmental analysis of fluorinated alkyl substances by liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry: a review. Anal Bioanal Chem 386:953–972Google Scholar
  121. Villaverde-de-Sáa E, Racamonde I, Quintana JB, Rodil R, Cela R (2012) Ion-pair sorptive extraction of perfluorinated compounds from water with low-cost polymeric materials: polyethersulfone vs polydimethylsiloxane. Anal Chim Acta 740:50–57Google Scholar
  122. Völkel W, Genzel-Boroviczény O, Demmelmair H, Gebauer C, Koletzko B, Twardella D et al (2007) Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human breast milk: results of a pilot study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 211:440–446Google Scholar
  123. Wang C, Lü Y, Chen H, Tan L, Teng E (2014) Simultaneous analysis of 14 short- and long-chain perfluorinated compounds in water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction. Chin J Chromatogr 32(9):919–925Google Scholar
  124. Whitworth KW, Haug LS, Baird DD, Becher G, Hoppin JA, Skjaerven R, Thomsen C, Eggesbo M, Travlos G, Wilson R, Longnecker MP (2012) Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women. Epidemiology 23(2):257–263Google Scholar
  125. Wolf CJ, Fenton S, Schmid J, Catalafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Bryant A, Thibodeaux J, Das KP, White SS, Lau CS, Abbott BD (2007) Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the CD-1 mouse after cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Toxicol Sci 95(2):462–473Google Scholar
  126. Wolf CJ, Zehr RD, Schmid JE, Lau C, Abbott BD (2010) Developmental effects of perfluorononanoic acid in the mouse are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. PPAR Res.
  127. Xiao F, Hanson RA, Golovko SA, Golovko MY, Arnold WA (2018) PFOA and PFOS are generated from zwitterionic and cationic precursor compounds during water disinfection with chlorine or ozone. Environ Sci Tech Let 5(6):382–388Google Scholar
  128. Yamashita N, Kannan K, Taniyasu S, Horii Y, Okazawa T, Petrick G, Gamo T (2004) Analysis of perfluorinated acids at parts-per-quadrillion levels in seawater using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Environ Sci Tech 38(21):5522–5528Google Scholar
  129. Yusa V, Ye X, Calafat AM (2012) Methods for the determination of biomarkers of exposure to emerging pollutants in human specimens. Trends Anal Chem 38:129–142Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences UniversityPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Agricultural Research Council-OVRPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations