Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 35, pp 35164–35175 | Cite as

Enhancement of simultaneous batik wastewater treatment and electricity generation in photocatalytic fuel cell

  • Wan Fadhilah Khalik
  • Li-Ngee Ho
  • Soon-An Ong
  • Chun-Hong Voon
  • Yee-Shian Wong
  • Sara Yasina Yusuf
  • Nik Athirah Yusoff
  • Sin-Li Lee
Research Article


The objective of this study was to investigate several operating parameters, such as open circuit, different external resistance, pH, supporting electrolyte, and presence of aeration that might enhance the degradation rate as well as electricity generation of batik wastewater in solar photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC). The optimum degradation of batik wastewater was at pH 9 with external resistor 250 Ω. It was observed that open circuit of PFC showed only 17.2 ± 7.5% of removal efficiency, meanwhile the degradation rate of batik wastewater was enhanced to 31.9 ± 15.0% for closed circuit with external resistor 250 Ω. The decolorization of batik wastewater in the absence of photocatalyst due to the absorption of light irradiation by dye molecules and this process was known as photolysis. The degradation of batik wastewater increased as the external resistor value decreased. In addition, the degradation rate of batik wastewater also increased at pH 9 which was 74.4 ± 34.9% and at pH 3, its degradation rate was reduced to 19.4 ± 8.7%. The presence of aeration and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte in batik wastewater also affected its degradation and electricity generation. The maximum absorbance of wavelength (λmax) of batik wastewater at 535 nm and chemical oxygen demand gradually decreased as increased in irradiation time; however, batik wastewater required prolonged irradiation time to fully degrade and mineralize in PFC system.


Batik wastewater Color removal External resistor Photocatalytic fuel cell Polarization curve 



The authors would like to thank Maido Corporation, Japan, and Osaka Gas Chemicals Co. Ltd., Japan, for supplying the carbon felt in this study.

Funding information

This project is supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2016/STG01/UNIMAP/02/1) provided by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3414_MOESM1_ESM.docx (176 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 176 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan Fadhilah Khalik
    • 1
  • Li-Ngee Ho
    • 2
  • Soon-An Ong
    • 1
  • Chun-Hong Voon
    • 2
  • Yee-Shian Wong
    • 1
  • Sara Yasina Yusuf
    • 1
  • Nik Athirah Yusoff
    • 1
  • Sin-Li Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Materials EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia

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