Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 34, pp 33926–33935 | Cite as

A mini review of fluoride-induced apoptotic pathways

  • Qin Wei
  • Huidan Deng
  • Hengmin CuiEmail author
  • Jing Fang
  • Zhicai Zuo
  • Junliang Deng
  • Yinglun Li
  • Xun Wang
  • Ling Zhao
Review Article


Fluorine or fluoride can have toxic effects on bone tissue and soft tissue at high concentrations. These negative effects include but not limited to cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, blood toxicity, and oxidative damage. Apoptosis plays an important role in fluoride-induced toxicity of kidney, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsil, and cultured cells. Here, apoptosis activated by high level of fluoride has been systematically reviewed, focusing on three pathways: mitochondrion-mediated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated, and death receptor-mediated pathways. However, very limited reports are focused on the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways in the fluoride-induced apoptosis. Therefore, understanding and discovery of more pathways and molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced apoptosis may contribute to designing measures for preventing fluoride toxicity.


Fluoride Apoptosis Mitochondrion ER stress Death receptor Pathway 


Funding information

The study was supported by the program for Changjiang scholars and innovative research team in university (IRT 0848) and the Shuangzhi Project of Sichuan Agricultural University (03572437; 03571800).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qin Wei
    • 1
  • Huidan Deng
    • 1
  • Hengmin Cui
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jing Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhicai Zuo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Junliang Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yinglun Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xun Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ling Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineSichuan Agricultural UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Environmental Hazards of Sichuan ProvinceSichuan Agriculture UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Agricultural information engineering of Sichuan ProvinceSichuan Agriculture UniversityYa’anChina

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