Advertisement

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment and water from Nairobi River, Kenya: levels, distribution, and ecological risk assessment

  • Elizabeth N. Ndunda
  • Vincent O. Madadi
  • Shem O. Wandiga
Research Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Production and use of most organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was banned through the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. However, appreciable amounts are still detected in the environment due to their persistence, illegal use, and releases from contaminated soils and obsolete stocks. The present study investigated the levels of OCP residues in Nairobi River. Sediment and water samples were collected from three sites along the river and screened for 17 OCPs using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Mean pesticide residues ranged from 0.01 to 41.9 μg kg−1 in sediment and below detection limit to 39.7 ng L−1 in water. In sediment α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, and p,p′-DDD were detected in all samples, while α-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, and endrin were detected in all water samples. Levels of OCPs in water were below the WHO maximum allowable limits for surface water. However, values higher than the sediment quality guidelines for sediment samples in Racecourse Road Bridge and Outering Road Bridge were reported, thus confirming the toxicity to aquatic organisms. Consequently, as these compounds are known to bio-accumulate in fatty tissues, continued use of the river water poses a health risk to animals and humans.

Keywords

Nairobi River Organochlorine pesticides Persistent organic pollutants Gas chromatography electron capture detector Residues 

Notes

Acknowledgements

E.N Ndunda acknowledges the University of Nairobi for funding her studies.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Barhoumi B, LeMenach K, Dévier M, El Y, Hammami B, Ameur WB, Hassine SB, Cachot J, Budzinski H, Driss MR (2014) Distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:6290–6302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) (1999) Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. CCME, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  3. Covaci A, Gheorghe A, Voorspoels S, Maervoet J, Steen Redeker E, Blust R, Schepens P (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediment cores from the Western Scheldt river (Belgium): analytical aspects and depth profiles. Environ Int 31:367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Doong R, Lee S, Lee C, Sun Y, Wu S (2008) Characterization and composition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in water and estuarine sediments from Gao-ping River, Taiwan. Mar Pollut Bull 57:846–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dulo SO (2008) Determination of some physico-chemical parameters of the Nairobi River, Kenya. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 12(1):57–62Google Scholar
  6. Everaarts JM, Van Weerlee EM, Fischer CV, Hillebrand TJ (1998) Polychlorinated biphenyls and cyclic pesticides in sediments and macro-invertebrates from the coastal zone and continental slope of Kenya. Mar Pollut Bull 36(6):492–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Floehr T, Xiao H, Scholz-Starke B, Wu L, Hou J, Yin D, Zhang X, Ji R, Yuan X, Ottermanns R, Roß-Nickoll N, Schäffer A, Hollert H (2013) Solution by dilution? A review on the pollution status of the Yangtze River. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6934–6971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Getenga ZM, Keng’ara FO, Wandiga SO (2004) Determination of organochlorine pesticides in soil and water from river Nyando Drainage System within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Bull Environ Contam 72(2):335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hiller E, Zemanová L, Sirotiak M, Jurkovič L (2011) Concentrations, distributions, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediments of the water reservoirs in Slovakia. Environ Monit Assess 173:883–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hong SH, Yim UH, Shim WJ, Oh JR, Lee ES (2003) Horizontal and vertical distribution of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in sediments from Masan Bay, Korea. Mar Pollut Bull 46:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karanja N, Mutua KG, Ayuke F, Njenga M, Prain G, Kimenju J (2010) Dynamics of soil nematodes and earthworms in urban vegetable irrigated with wastewater in the Nairobi River basin, Kenya. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 12:521–530Google Scholar
  12. Kinyamu JK, Kanja LW, Skaare JU, Maitho TE (1998) Organochlorine pesticides residues in milk of urban mothers in Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 60:732–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kithiia MS, Wambua NB (2010) Temporal changes of sediment dynamics within the Nairobi River sub-basins between 1998–2006 time scale, Kenya. Land Reclam 42(1):17–22Google Scholar
  14. Kuranchie-Mensah H, Atiemo SM, Palm LN, Blankson-Arthur S, Tutu AO, Fosu P (2012) Determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in sediment and water from the Densu river basin, Ghana. Chemosphere 86:286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lalah JO, Yugi PO, Jumba IO, Wandiga SO (2003) Organochlorine pesticide residues in Tana and Sabaki Rivers in Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Long ER, Bin C, Smith SL, Calder FD (1995) Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environ Manag 19(1):81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Muniafu M, Otiato E (2010) Solid Waste Management in Nairobi, Kenya. A case for emerging economies. J Lang Technol Enterpreneursh Africa 2(1):1998–1279Google Scholar
  18. Musyoki MA, Suleiman AM, Mbithi NJ, Maingi MJ (2013) Water-borne bacterial pathogens in surface waters of Nairobi River and health implication on communities downstream Athi River. Int J Life Sci Pharma Res 3(1):1–10Google Scholar
  19. Mutune AN, Makobe MA, Abukutsa-Onyango MOO (2014) Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 8(1):66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mwinyihija M (2012) Pollution control and remediation of the tanning effluent. The Open Environmental Pollution & Toxicology Journal 3:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rizzi J, Taniguchi S, Martins CC (2017) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from an urban- and industrial-impacted subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil). Mar Pollut Bull 119:390–395.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Salem MS, Khaled A, Nemr AE (2013) Assessment of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Egypt J Aquat Res 39:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. UNEP (2004) Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). United Nations Environmental Programme: Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  24. Wandiga SO (2001) Use and distribution of organochlorine pesticides. The future in Africa. Pure Appl Chem 73(7):1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wandiga SO, Madadi VO (2009) Water quality issues in East Africa. In: Ahuja S (ed) Handbook of water purity and quality. Academic Press Elsevier, London, pp 39–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wandiga SO, Yugi PO, Barasa MW, Jumba IO, Lalah JO (2002) The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya. Environ Technol 23(11):1235–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang H, Omosa BI, Keller AA, Li F (2012) Ecosystem protection, integrated management and infrastructure are vital for improving water quality in Africa. Environ Sci Technol 46:4699–4700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wasswa J, Kiremire BT, Nkedi-Kizza T, Mbabazi J, Ssebugere P (2011) Organochlorine pesticides residues in sediments from the Uganda side of Lake Victoria. Chemosphere 82:130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Webster L, Roose P, Bersuder B, Kotterman M, Haarich M, Vorkamp K (2013) Determinations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and biota. ICES Tech Mar Environ 53:1–19Google Scholar
  30. Willet KL, Ulrich RA (1998) Differential toxicity and environmental fates of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Environ Sci Technol 32(15):2197–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Williams TM, Rees JG, Ferguson A, Herd RA, Kairu KK, Yobe AC (1997) Metals, petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorines in inshore sediments and waters of Mombasa, Kenya. Mar Pollut Bull 34(7):570–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th Edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu WZ, Xu Y, Schramm KW, Kettrup A (1997) A study of sorption, biodegradation and isomerization of HCH in stimulated sediment/water system. Chemosphere 35(9):1887–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang Z, Huang J, Yu G, Hong H (2003) Occurrence of PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Tonghui River of Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 130(2):249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth N. Ndunda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vincent O. Madadi
    • 1
  • Shem O. Wandiga
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, School of Physical SciencesUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of Physical Sciences, School of Pure and Applied SciencesMachakos UniversityMachakosKenya

Personalised recommendations