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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 34, pp 33978–33991 | Cite as

Performance of full-scale coagulation-flocculation/DAF as a pre-treatment technology for biodegradability enhancement of high strength wastepaper-recycling wastewater

  • Sepideh Ansari
  • Javad Alavi
  • Zaher Mundher YaseenEmail author
Research Article
  • 432 Downloads

Abstract

Paper mill wastewater leads to a serious damage on the environment owing to the high content of organic matters, suspended solids, toxic substances, and lignin. Hence, exploring new treatment technologies is the passion of environmental engineers to minimize the effluent impact on the environment and cleaner production aspects. This research focused on the performance of full-scale coagulation-fluctuation/DAF system for pre-treatment of high strength wastepaper-recycling wastewater and its effect on biodegradability improvement. To optimize unit performance, optimum coagulant and flocculant doses were firstly determined by jar test without prior change and adjustment of pH in lab-scale experiments. The optimum dosages were obtained by 1500 mg L−1 polyaluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulant coupled with 40 mg L−1 cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) as flocculant. Percentage removals of 39 ± 10, 6.8 ± 3.6, 31.0 ± 6.7, 24.0 ± 3.8, and 33.0 ± 20.0 were achieved for COD, sCOD, BOD5, sBOD5, and color, respectively. The average BOD5 to COD ratio after pre-treatment increased from 0.44 to 0.5, whereas the ratio of sBOD5/sCOD dropped from 0.65 to 0.53. A superior effectiveness in reduction of TSS (98.1%) and VSS (98.4%) was also achieved. The results show that the application process is able to prevent malfunction operation in the following bioreactors which is obtainable through bio-treatability enhancement of pre-treated wastewater and reducing the risks of clogging and sludge washout. Attached growth processes are suggested to be applied in the further anaerobic/aerobic processes because of high proportion of soluble fraction of COD in the effluent to avoid poor floc formation and dispersed growth problems.

Keywords

Coagulation-flocculation DAF Bio-treatability Paper recycling plant High strength wastewater 

Abbreviations

ABR

Anaerobic baffled reactor

BOD

Biochemical oxygen demand

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

C/F

Coagulation-flocculation

C-F/DAF

Coagulation-flocculation/dissolved air floatation

C-PAM

Cationic polyacrylamide

DAF

Dissolved air floatation

HRT

Hydraulic retention time

HLR

Hydraulic loading rate

iTSS

Inert total suspended solids

NH3

Free ammonia

NO3

Nitrate ion

OLR

Organic loading rate

PACl

Polyaluminum chloride

PAM

Polyacrylamide

pBOD

Particulate biochemical oxygen demand

pCOD

Particulate chemical oxygen demand

sBOD

Soluble biochemical oxygen demand

sCOD

Soluble chemical oxygen demand

SVI

Sludge volume index

TDS

Total dissolved solids

TKN

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen

TSS

Total suspended solids

VSS

Volatile suspended solids

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the managers and staff of the factory for facilitating and providing financial supports to conduct this research. Also, the authors gratefully acknowledge Mr. Ahmad Zeighami for his comments, assistance, and enthusiastic support during sampling and water quality analysis.

Funding information

This study was funded by Kaghaz bazyaft wastepaper-recycling plant.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sepideh Ansari
    • 1
  • Javad Alavi
    • 1
  • Zaher Mundher Yaseen
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringKheradgarayan Motahar Institute of Higher EducationMashhadIran
  2. 2.Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil EngineeringTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

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