Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 312–325 | Cite as

China’s provincial CO2 emissions and interprovincial transfer caused by investment demand

  • Qiuping Li
  • Sanmang WuEmail author
  • Yalin Lei
  • Shantong Li
  • Li Li
Research Article


Based on the China’s 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 multiregional input–output model, this study calculates China’s provincial CO2 emissions from investment demand and interprovincial transfer of CO2 emissions caused by investment demand. The findings of this study are as follows: (1) From 1997 to 2012, the CO2 emissions from China’s investment demand have seen rapid growth—the CO2 emissions from investment demand has increased by 4.52 times, and the per capita CO2 emissions caused by investment demand has increased by 4.13 times. Investment demand is an important driver of growth of China’s CO2 emissions. The proportion of CO2 emissions from investment demand in CO2 emissions from China’s three final demands rose from 37.72% in 1997 to 50.68% in 2012. (2) The CO2 emissions from investment demand are relatively large in provinces which have large-scale industries. Affected by investment-driven economic growth, CO2 emissions from investment demand in central, western, and northeastern provinces have increased more rapidly. (3) Large amounts of CO2 are emitted in the less-developed central and western provinces to meet the investment demand of the developed eastern provinces. As China’s economy enters the “new normal,” economic growth is shifting from investment-driven to consumption-driven, and the growth of CO2 emissions from investment demand will slow down.


CO2 emissions Investment demand Multiregional input–output model Interprovincial transfer 



The authors are grateful for financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71773118 and 71733003. The data used in the analysis is publicly available and can be found following the references.


  1. BP (2017) BP statistical review of world energy. BP, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen MM, Wu SM, Lei YL, Li ST (2018) Study on embodied CO2 transfer between the Jing-Jin-Ji region and other regions in China: a quantification using an interregional input-output model. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(14):14068–14082. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dietzenbacher E, Pei JS, Yang CH (2012) Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions. J Environ Econ Manag 64(1):88–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dong YM, Zhao T (2017) Difference analysis of the relationship between household per capita income, per capita expenditure and per capita CO2 emissions in China: 1997-2014. Atmos Pollut Res 8(2):310–319. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Feng KS, Hubacek K (2016) Carbon implications of China’s urbanization. Energy, Ecol Environ 1(1):39–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Feng KS, Davis SJ, Sun LX, Li X, Guan D, Liu W, Liu Z, Hubacek K (2013) Outsourcing CO2 within China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(28):11654–11659. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Golley J, Meng X (2012) Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: the case of Chinese urban households. Energy Econ 34(6):1864–1872. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guo JE, Zhang ZK, Meng L (2012) China’s provincial CO2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade. Energy Policy 42:486–497. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hubacek K, Sun L (2001) A scenario analysis of China’s land use and land cover change: incorporating biophysical information into input-output modeling. Struct Change Econ Dyn 12(4):367–397. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li ST (2016) China regional expansion input-output table in 2007: preparation and application. Economic Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Li ST (2018) China regional expansion input-output table in 2012: preparation and application. Economic Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  12. Li FF, Ma ZX (2018) Can China achieve its CO2 emissions peak by 2030? Ecol Indic 84:337–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li ST, Qi SC, Xu YZ (2010) China regional expansion input-output table in 2002: preparation and application. Economic Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Li H, Zhang Z, Liu Z (2017a) Application of artificial neural networks for catalysis: a review. Catalysts 7(10):306. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li H, Liu ZJ, Liu KJ, Zhang Z (2017b) Predictive power of machine learning for optimizing solar water heater performance: the potential application of high-throughput screening. International Journal of Photoenergy 4194251:10.
  16. Liu Y, Chen SY, Chen B, Yang W (2017a) Analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in China’s bilateral trade: a non-competitive import input-output approach. J Clean Prod 163:S410–S419. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu Z, Li H, Liu K, Yu H, Cheng K (2017b) Design of high-performance water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters by a high-throughput screening based on machine learning: a combined modeling and experimental study. Sol Energy 142(15):61–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meng B, Xue JJ, Feng K, Guan D, Fu X (2013) China’s inter-regional spillover of carbon emissions and domestic supply chains. Energy Policy 61:1305–1321. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meng J, Mi ZF, Guan D, Li J, Tao S, Li Y, Feng K, Liu Z et al (2018) The rise of South–South trade and its effect on global CO2 emissions. Nat Commun 9(1):1871. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mi ZF, Zhang YK, Guan DB, Shan Y, Liu Z, Cong R, Yuan XC, Wei YM (2016) Consumption-based emission accounting for Chinese cities. Appl Energy 184:1073–1081. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mi ZF, Meng J, Guan D, Shan Y, Song M, Wei YM, Liu Z, Hubacek K (2017a) Chinese CO2 emission flows have reversed since the global financial crisis. Nat Commun 8:1712. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mi ZF, Meng J, Guan D, Shan Y, Liu Z, Wang Y, Feng K, Wei YM (2017b) Pattern changes in determinants of Chinese emissions. Environ Res Lett 12(7):074003. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2018) China statistical yearbook. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Pan J, Philips J, Chen Y (2008) China’s balance of emissions embodied in trade: approaches to measurement and allocating international responsibility. Oxf Rev Econ Policy 24(2):354–376. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Qi TY, Winchester N, Karplus VJ, Zhang XL (2014) Will economic restructuring in China reduce trade-embodied CO2 emissions? Energy Econ 42:204–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ren SG, Yuan BL, Ma X, Chen X (2014) International trade, FDI (foreign direct investment) and embodied CO2 emissions: a case study of Chinas industrial sectors. China Econ Rev 28:123–134. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shi MJ, Wang H, Zhang ZY, Zhou X (2012) Regional carbon footprint and interregional transfer of carbon emissions in China. J Geogr Sci 67(10):1327–1338 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Statistics Bureau of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (2014) Guangxi statistical yearbook. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Statistics Bureau of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (2014) Inner Mongolia statistical yearbook. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Statistics Bureau of Shandong (2014) Shandong statistical yearbook. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Su B, Ang BW (2014) Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: a multi-region model for China. Appl Energy 114:377–384. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Su B, Ang BW (2017) Multiplicative structural decomposition analysis of aggregate embodied energy and emission intensities. Energy Econ 65:137–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang ZH, Liu W, Yin JH (2015) Driving forces of indirect carbon emissions from household consumption in China: an input–output decomposition analysis. Nat Hazards 75(2):257–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Q, Liang QM, Wang B, Zhong FX (2016) Impact of household expenditures on CO2 emissions in China: income-determined or lifestyle-driven? Nat Hazards 84(1):S353–S379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weitzel M, Ma T (2014) Emissions embodied in Chinese exports taking into account the special export structure of China. Energy Econ 45:45–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wiedenhofer D, Guan D, Liu Z, Meng J, Zhang N, Wei YM (2016) Unequal household carbon footprints in China. Nat Clim Chang 7(1):75–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wu R, Geng Y, Dong HJ, Fujita T, Tian X (2016) Changes of CO2 emissions embodied in China-Japan trade: drivers and implications. J Clean Prod 112:4151–4158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu SM, Wu YR, Lei ST, Li ST, Li L (2018) Chinese provinces’ CO2 emissions embodied in imports and exports. Earth’s Future 6:867–881. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu XC, Li ST (2008) China Regional Expansion Input-output table in 1997: Preparation and Application. Tsinghua University Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Xu M, Li R, Crittenden JC, Chen Y (2011) CO2 emissions embodied in China’s exports from 2002 to 2008: a structural decomposition analysis. Energy Policy 39(11):7381–7388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xu XK, Han LY, Lv XF (2016) Household carbon inequality in urban China, its sources and determinants. Ecol Econ 128:77–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yan YF, Yang LK (2010) China's foreign trade and climate change: a case study of CO2 emissions. Energy Policy 38(1):350–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang TR, Liu WL (2017) Inequality of household carbon emissions and its influencing factors: case study of urban China. Habitat Int 70:61–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yao CS, Chen CY, Li M (2012) Analysis of rural residential energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions in China. Energy Policy 41:445–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yao L, Liu JR, Yuan Y (2017) Growth of carbon footprint of Chinese household consumption during the recent two decades and its future trends. Acta Sci Circumst 37(6):2403–2408 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Zhang YJ, Bian XJ, Tan W, Song J (2017) The indirect energy consumption and CO2 emission caused by household consumption in China: an analysis based on the input–output method. J Clean Prod 163:69–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhu Q, Peng XZ, Wu KY (2012) Calculation and decomposition of indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption in China based on the input-output model. Energy Policy 48:618–626. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Humanities and Economic ManagementChina University of GeosciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and EnvironmentMinistry of Natural Resources of the People’s Republic of ChinaBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Development Research Center of State CouncilBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations