Micronucleus frequency is correlated with antioxidant enzyme levels in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides
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Oxidative stress can cause DNA damage leading to nuclear anomalies such as micronuclei (MN). Antioxidant enzymes involved in protection against intracellular oxidative stress include glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Pesticide exposure induces oxidative stress and alters antioxidant defense mechanisms, including detoxification and scavenger enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate MN frequency in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides and their relationship with antioxidant enzyme activities. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 201 individuals, some of whom were dedicated to the spraying of pesticides. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was conducted, and the activities of GPx, GR, SOD, and CAT were determined. The geometric mean (GM) of MN was 5.4 (1–26 MN). The GM for the antioxidant enzymes was 198.68 U/mL for GPx, 38.96 U/g Hb for GR, 94.78 U/mL for SOD, and 69.77 U/g Hb for CAT. There was a lower MN frequency in males than that in females, and a higher nuclear index. In addition, age affected MN frequency. There was a negative correlation between MN frequency and GPx activity, but a positive one between MN frequency and GR activity. These findings suggest the involvement of GPx in MN frequency.
KeywordsMicronuclei Antioxidant enzymes Pesticides exposure
The authors would like to thank Rigoberto Zepeda Arce for his technical assistance; Cyndia Azucena González Arias and Norma Elena Pérez Herrera for their critical review of the manuscript; to Leticia Yañez Estrada and the team of the Gender, Health and Environmental Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty, San Luis Potosi Autonomous University, for their help in DAP determination. The authors also would like to thank all study participants.
This study was supported by CONACyT-SALUD-Mexico-233803.
Compliance with ethical standards
All participants signed an informed consent at the beginning of the study. This study was approved by the Bioethics Commission of Nayarit State, Mexico (CEBN/0112017).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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