Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 31616–31629 | Cite as

The role of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption in CO2 emissions: a disaggregate analysis of Pakistan

  • Syed Anees Haider Zaidi
  • Danish
  • Fujun HouEmail author
  • Faisal Mehmood Mirza
Research Article


The energy sector has become the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among these GHG emissions, most threatening is CO2 emission which comes from the consumption of fossil fuels. This empirical work analyzes the roles of renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption in CO2 emissions in Pakistan. The empirical evidence is based on an auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL) model of data from 1970 to 2016. The disaggregate analysis reveals that renewable energy consumption has an insignificant impact on CO2 emission in Pakistan and that, in the non-renewable energy model, natural gas and coal are the main contributors to the level of pollution in Pakistan. Economic growth positively contributes to CO2 emission in the renewable energy model but not in the non-renewable energy model. Policies that emphasize the contribution of renewable energy to economic growth and that add more clean energy into the energy mix are suggested.


Renewable energy Non-renewable energy Economic growth Disaggregate analysis ARDL 


Funding information

We are grateful to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71571019) for supporting and sponsoring this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Anees Haider Zaidi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Danish
    • 1
    • 3
  • Fujun Hou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Faisal Mehmood Mirza
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Management and Economics, Department of Management Science and EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.COMSATS University IslamabadSahiwalPakistan
  3. 3.School of Economics and TradeGuangdong University of Foreign StudiesGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of Economics, Hafiz Hayat CampusUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan

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