Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30463–30474 | Cite as

Toxicity evaluation and environmental risk assessment of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) on non-target aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata

  • Hewa Pathirannahelage Athri Thathsarani Weerakoon
  • Keerthi Sri Senarathna Atapaththu
  • Hewa Bandulage Asanthi
Research Article
  • 77 Downloads

Abstract

Aquatic plants in agricultural landscapes play a vital role in maintaining the ecological integrity within the aquatic systems while facing an array of disturbances. Among them, information on herbicide exposure on non-target aquatic plants is scarce. The present study was designed to fill this information gap by detecting the impacts of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on Hydrilla verticillata using morpho-anatomical and physiological biomarkers and assessing the environmental risk of MCPA to the non-target environment. H. verticillata was exposed to different MCPA concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 μg/L) and control (0 μg/L) for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, plant growth, pigments, H2O2 content, peroxidase activity (POD) and plant anatomy were compared. The environmental risk was assessed using predicted environmental concentration/predicted no effect concentration (PEC:PNEC) ratio, hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI). Control plants exhibited the highest growth, and a growth decline was noted in parallel to MCPA exposure, where a similar trend was detected for the plant pigment contents. MCPA induced chlorosis and oxidative stress in H. verticillata. Risk analysis detected high values for PEC:PNEC ratios (3–9), HQ (1.92–5.79) and HI (28.15). MCPA-exposed H. verticillata could recover once those plants received natural conditions. Overall, present findings showed the negative impacts of MCPA on non-target aquatic plant H. verticillata. These findings will be useful to clarify the interaction between agrochemicals and non-target aquatic plants. Such information would benefit to decide the criteria in aquatic ecosystem management.

Keywords

Chlorosis Environmental risk assessment MCPA Oxidative stress H. verticillata 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the Head of the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and Technology, University of Ruhuna for providing facilities for microscopic analysis.

References

  1. Akula R, Ravishankar GA (2011) Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Signal Behav 6(11):1720–1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atapaththu K, Asaeda T (2015a) Growth and stress responses of Nuttall’s waterweed Elodea nuttallii (Planch) St. John to water movements. Hydrobiologia 747(1):217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atapaththu KSS, Asaeda T (2015b) Responses of aquatic macrophytes to flucuations in abiotic stress vectors. In: Crystal E, Rodney (eds) Aquatic plants composition, nutrient concentration and environmental impact. Nova, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Atapaththu KSS, Rashid MH, Asaeda T (2016) Growth and oxidative stress of brittlewort (Nitella pseudoflabellata) in response to cesium exposure. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96(3):347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertrand L, Marino DJ, Monferrán MV, Amé MV (2017) Can a low concentration of an organophosphate insecticide cause negative effects on an aquatic macrophyte? Exposure of Potamogeton pusillus at environmentally relevant chlorpyrifos concentrations. Environ Exp Bot 138:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bornette G, Puijalon S (2011) Response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors: a review. Aquat Sci 73(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boutin C, Lee HB, Peart ET, Batchelor PS, Maguire RJ (2000) Effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide metsulfuron methyl on growth and reproduction of five wetland and terrestrial plant species. Environ Toxicol Chem 19(10):2532–2541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boutin C, Strandberg B, Carpenter D, Mathiassen SK, Thomas PJ (2014) Herbicide impact on non-target plant reproduction: what are the toxicological and ecological implications? Environ Pollut 185:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calow PP (2009) Handbook of environmental risk assessment and management. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  10. Chary NS, Kamala C, Raj DSS (2008) Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 69(3):513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chauhan BS, Abeysekara ASK, Kulatunga SD, Madusanka IU (2013) Weed growth and grain yield, as affected by herbicides, in dry-seeded rice in Sri Lanka. J Crop Improv 27(4):419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies J, Honegger JL, Tencalla FG, Meregalli G, Brain P, Newman JR, Pitchford HF (2003) Herbicide risk assessment for non-target aquatic plants: sulfosulfuron–a case study. Pest Manag Sci 59(2):231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duman F, Urey E, Temizgul R, Bozok F (2010) Biological responses of a non-target aquatic plant (Nasturtium officinale) to the herbicide, tribenuron-methyl. Weed Biol Manag 10(2):81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gordon SA, Weber RP (1951) Colorimetric estimation of indoleacitic acid. Plant Physiol 26:192–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hickey G (2010) Ecotoxicological risk assessment: developments in PNEC estimation. Durham UniversityGoogle Scholar
  16. Huiyun P, Xiaolu L, Xiaohua X, Shixiang G (2009) Phytotoxicity of four herbicides on Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii. J Environ Sci 21(3):307–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jana S, Choudhuri MA (1982) Glycolate metabolism of three submersed aquatic angiosperms during ageing. Aquat Bot 12:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jayasumana C, Paranagama P, Agampodi S, Wijewardane C, Gunatilake S, Siribaddana S (2015) Drinking well water and occupational exposure to herbicides is associated with chronic kidney disease, in Padavi-Sripura, Sri Lanka. Environ Health 14(1):6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuehne LM, Olden JD, Strecker AL, Lawler JJ, Theobald DM (2017) Past, present, and future of ecological integrity assessment for fresh waters. Front Ecol Environ 15(4):197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Landi M, Tattini M, Gould KS (2015) Multiple functional roles of anthocyanins in plant-environment interactions. Environ Exp Bot 119(Supplement C):4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lang I, Sassmann S, Schmidt B, Komis G (2014) Plasmolysis: loss of turgor and beyond. Plants 3(4):583–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lima DA, Müller C, Costa AC, Batista PF, Dalvi VC, Domingos M (2017) Morphoanatomical and physiological changes in Bauhinia variegata L. as indicators of herbicide diuron action. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 141(Supplement C):242–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lushchak VI (2011) Environmentally induced oxidative stress in aquatic animals. Aquat Toxicol 101(1):13–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lytle TF, Lytle JS (2005) Growth inhibition as indicator of stress because of atrazine following multiple toxicant exposure of the freshwater macrophyte, Juncus effusus L. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(5):1198–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. MacAdam JW, Nelson CJ, Sharp RE (1992) Proxidase activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue: I. Spatial distribution of ionically bound peroxidase activity in genotypes differing in length of the elongation zone. Plant Physiol 99:872–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mahmood I, Imadi SR, Shazadi K, Gul A, Hakeem KR (2016) Effects of pesticides on environment, plant, soil and microbes. Springer, pp 253–269Google Scholar
  27. Maltby L, Arnold D, Arts G, Davies J, Heimbach F, Pickl C, Poulsen V (2009) Aquatic macrophyte risk assessment for pesticides. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  28. Manuilova A, Svensson H (2003) Methods and tools for assessment of environmental risk. Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry, DANTES projectGoogle Scholar
  29. Martins SE, Fillmann G, Lillicrap A, Thomas KV (2018) Ecotoxicity of organic and organo-metallic antifouling co-biocides and implications for environmental hazard and risk assessments in aquatic ecosystems. Biofouling 34(1):34–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Menone ML, Pflugmacher S (2005) Effects of 3-chlorobiphenyl on photosynthetic oxygen production, glutathione content and detoxication enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Chemosphere 60(1):79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mohammad M, Itoh K, Suyama K (2008) Comparative effects of different families of herbicides on recovery potentials in Lemna sp. J Pestic Sci 33(2):171–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moustakas M, Malea P, Zafeirakoglou A, Sperdouli I (2016) Photochemical changes and oxidative damage in the aquatic macrophyte Cymodocea nodosa exposed to paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Pestic Biochem Physiol 126:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nadaraja AV, Saraswathy DP, Ravindran SC, Mariya A, Russel JG, Selvanesan P, Pereira B, Bhaskaran K (2017) Spatio-temporal distribution of perchlorate and its toxicity in Hydrilla verticillata. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 144:490–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pati S, Mohapatra S, Dey SK (2014) Antioxidative response of Hydrilla verticillata (Lf) Royle under short term exposure to mercuric chloride. Br J Appl Sci Technol 4(6):879–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pereira JL, Antunes SC, Castro BB, Marques CR, Gonçalves AMM, Gonçalves F, Pereira R (2009) Toxicity evaluation of three pesticides on non-target aquatic and soil organisms: commercial formulation versus active ingredient. Ecotoxicology 18(4):455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rodriguez-Gil JL, Prosser R, Hanta G, Poirier D, Lissemore L, Hanson M, Solomon KR (2017) Aquatic hazard assessment of MON 0818, a commercial mixture of alkylamine ethoxylates commonly used in glyphosate-containing herbicide formulations. Part 2: roles of sediment, temperature, and capacity for recovery following a pulsed exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(2):512–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Salman JM, Abdul-Adel E, AlKaim AF (2016) Effect of pesticide glyphosate on some biochemical features in cyanophyta algae oscillatorialimnetica. Int J Pharm Technol Res 9(8):355–365Google Scholar
  38. Sebaugh J (2011) Guidelines for accurate EC50/IC50 estimation. Pharm Stat 10(2):128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Spengler A, Wanninger L, Pflugmacher S (2017) Oxidative stress mediated toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles after a concentration and time dependent exposure of the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata. Aquat Toxicol 190:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Strandberg B, Boutin C, Mathiassen SK, Damgaard C, Dupont YL, Carpenter DJ, Kudsk P (2017) Effects of herbicides on non-target terrestrial plants, pesticide dose: effects on the environment and target and non-target organisms. ACS Symposium Series. American Chemical Society, pp 149–166Google Scholar
  41. Sunohara Y, Matsumoto H (2004) Oxidative injury induced by the herbicide quinclorac on Echinochloa oryzicola Vasing. and the involvement of antioxidative ability in its highly selective action in grass species. Plant Sci 167(3):597–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Valavanidis A, Vlahogianni T, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M (2006) Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64(2):178–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Volosin JS, Cardwell RD (2002) Relationships between aquatic hazard quotients and probabilistic risk estimates: what is the significance of a hazard quotient> 1? Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J 8(2):355–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang Q, Que X, Li C, Xiao B (2014) Phytotoxicity of atrazine to emergent hydrophyte, Iris pseudacorus L. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92(3):300–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wellburn AR (1994) The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J Plant Physiol 144:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Winkel-Shirley B (2001) Flavonoid biosynthesis. A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology. Plant Physiol 126(2):485–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhong G, Wu Z, Yin J, Chai L (2018) Responses of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate exposure. Chemosphere 193:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Limnology and Water Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and TechnologyUniversity of RuhunaMataraSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations