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Behavioral activity patterns of adult and juvenile Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) with alteration of climatic pattern at Uchalli Lake, Punjab, Pakistan


A study was carried out at Uchalli Lake, District Khushab on Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) to find their behavioral activity pattern. The hypothesis that local climatic temperature affects the wintering behavior of Greater Flamingos was tested. Data were collected for a period of 3 days in March and 10 days in April using focal animal analysis. Each day was divided into four periods (7–8 a.m., 10–11 a.m., 1–2 p.m., and 4–5 p.m.). Activity patterns included characters like feeding, resting, flying, walking, preening, aggression, and alert. Results showed that feeding was the major activity for adults (51.06%) and juveniles (56.51%). Juveniles spent more time (t = − 2.02, p < 0.05) feeding than adults. There was a highly significant difference (t = 3.20, p < 0.01) in alert between adults and juveniles across time periods. Adults spent more time alert (8.3%) than juveniles (4.49%). Only aggression and alert in adults and walking and alert in juveniles was found significantly correlated to change with temperature. The findings of the present study highlighted the need of in-depth eco-ethological study of Greater Flamingo and hydrology of wetland.

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Correspondence to Shabana Naz or Asma Ashraf.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Naz, S., Tanveer, A., Abrar, M. et al. Behavioral activity patterns of adult and juvenile Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) with alteration of climatic pattern at Uchalli Lake, Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 30132–30138 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2994-y

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  • Greater Flamingos
  • Uchalli
  • Activity pattern
  • Environmental temperature