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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30110–30121 | Cite as

Borohydride method modification in synthesizing nano zero valent iron and its application in DDT removal

  • Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas
  • Eyup Debik
Research Article

Abstract

Among the methods used in the literature for the synthesizing of nano zero valent iron (nZVI), borohydride is the most commonly used method; it is seen that different variables are used together. In this study, optimum nano zero valent iron (nZVI) synthesizing method using borohydride method has been modified by using multiple optimization method in terms of both particle size and zeta potential. Selected independent variables are selected as iron sulfate concentration, ethanol ratio, and flow rate of borohydride solution. With the optimum synthesis method determined, the lowest particle size was obtained as 70 nm only when the particle size was taken into consideration, whereas 88.2 nm nZVI could be produced when both the particle size and the zeta potential were taken into consideration. In addition, the removal of DDT, which is the most commonly used persistent organic pollutant pesticides in the world, was investigated by nZVI synthesized. Different initial DDT concentration was investigated by expressing oxidation reduction potential (ORP) difference, removal rates, and oxidation byproducts. When DDD and DDE concentrations are considered, it is found that DDT is more likely to oxidize in DDD in all studied initial DDT concentrations. Removal rate was higher than 80% with initial concentrations lower than 125 μg/L, which is a high concentration that could be found in surface waters.

Keywords

nZVI DDT metabolites Response surface methodology Desirability function Multiple optimization 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have received research grants from Research Fund of the Yildiz Technical University. Project Number: 2015-05-02-DOP02. Also, Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas was supported by TUBITAK Scientist Supporting Board during the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering DepartmentYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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