Role of sorption energy and chemisorption in batch methylene blue and Cu2+ adsorption by novel thuja cone carbon in binary component system: linear and nonlinear modeling
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Functionalized thuja cone carbon (FTCC) was synthesized thermochemically. It was carried out by carbonization (250 °C) and activation (320 °C), followed by surface functionalization in 0.5 M HAN (HNO and HCl3) mixture and subsequent heating in H2SO4 (95%) at 90 °C. This was used for methylene blue (MB) adsorption in single component system (SCS) and binary component system (BCS) with Cu2+. Maximum adsorption capacity of MB (83.4 mg/g) was achieved at pH 10 at 100 mg/L of adsorbate solution. MB and Cu2+ adsorption onto FTCC obeyed pseudo-second-order model kinetics. Spontaneous and endothermic MB adsorption was noticed with negative Gibbs free energy change (− 6.34, − 9.20, and − 13.78 kJ/mol) and positive enthalpy change (133.91 kJ/mol). At low concentrations, Cu2+ adsorption increased by 14 mg/g with least reduction of MB adsorption (< 4 mg/g) in BCS. Isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) support the increase in Cu2+ adsorption in BCS. The sorption heat of MB shifted from 165.16 kJ/mol (SCS) to 150.85 kJ/mol in BCS (Temkin) and from 57.74 kJ/mol (SCS) to 50.50 kJ/mol in BCS (D-R), which supports the lower MB uptake in BCS due to decrease in sorption energy. The sorption heat of Cu2+ is increased (148.43 kJ/mol) in the BCS than SCS (155.36 kJ/mol), which makes the equal distribution of increased bonding energies; therefore, FTCC surface sites increased the Cu2+ uptake in the BCS. Desorption studies concluded the reusability of FTCC by 75% and 79% for MB and Cu2+ adsorption respectively. This study recommends to determine the best fit of isotherm and kinetic models to adsorption data by linear as well as nonlinear regression fit.
KeywordsSorption energy Chemisorption Thuja cone carbon Methylene blue Copper Binary component system
Author is also thankful to Dr. Tayyab Ashfaq for his valuable contribution in nonlinear and linear modeling of adsorption kinetics and improvement of manuscript.
This work was financially supported by the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan [Project number 20-1915].
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that have no competing interests.
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