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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 31579–31592 | Cite as

Role of sorption energy and chemisorption in batch methylene blue and Cu2+ adsorption by novel thuja cone carbon in binary component system: linear and nonlinear modeling

  • Saeed Rehman
  • Adnan Adil
  • Ahsan Jabbar Shaikh
  • Jehanzeb Ali Shah
  • Muhammad Arshad
  • Muhammad Arif Ali
  • Muhammad Bilal
Research Article
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

Functionalized thuja cone carbon (FTCC) was synthesized thermochemically. It was carried out by carbonization (250 °C) and activation (320 °C), followed by surface functionalization in 0.5 M HAN (HNO and HCl3) mixture and subsequent heating in H2SO4 (95%) at 90 °C. This was used for methylene blue (MB) adsorption in single component system (SCS) and binary component system (BCS) with Cu2+. Maximum adsorption capacity of MB (83.4 mg/g) was achieved at pH 10 at 100 mg/L of adsorbate solution. MB and Cu2+ adsorption onto FTCC obeyed pseudo-second-order model kinetics. Spontaneous and endothermic MB adsorption was noticed with negative Gibbs free energy change (− 6.34, − 9.20, and − 13.78 kJ/mol) and positive enthalpy change (133.91 kJ/mol). At low concentrations, Cu2+ adsorption increased by 14 mg/g with least reduction of MB adsorption (< 4 mg/g) in BCS. Isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) support the increase in Cu2+ adsorption in BCS. The sorption heat of MB shifted from 165.16 kJ/mol (SCS) to 150.85 kJ/mol in BCS (Temkin) and from 57.74 kJ/mol (SCS) to 50.50 kJ/mol in BCS (D-R), which supports the lower MB uptake in BCS due to decrease in sorption energy. The sorption heat of Cu2+ is increased (148.43 kJ/mol) in the BCS than SCS (155.36 kJ/mol), which makes the equal distribution of increased bonding energies; therefore, FTCC surface sites increased the Cu2+ uptake in the BCS. Desorption studies concluded the reusability of FTCC by 75% and 79% for MB and Cu2+ adsorption respectively. This study recommends to determine the best fit of isotherm and kinetic models to adsorption data by linear as well as nonlinear regression fit.

Keywords

Sorption energy Chemisorption Thuja cone carbon Methylene blue Copper Binary component system 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Author is also thankful to Dr. Tayyab Ashfaq for his valuable contribution in nonlinear and linear modeling of adsorption kinetics and improvement of manuscript.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan [Project number 20-1915].

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interest

The authors declare that have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed Rehman
    • 1
  • Adnan Adil
    • 1
  • Ahsan Jabbar Shaikh
    • 2
  • Jehanzeb Ali Shah
    • 1
  • Muhammad Arshad
    • 3
  • Muhammad Arif Ali
    • 4
  • Muhammad Bilal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadAbbottabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryCOMSATS University IslamabadAbbottabadPakistan
  3. 3.IESENational University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)IslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Soil ScienceBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan

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