Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 26, pp 26617–26624 | Cite as

Development of immunochromatographic assays for the detection of imidacloprid in soil chemical barrier

  • Jiachuan Yang
  • Qian Yang
  • Jiaqi Deng
  • Zhexuan Tao
  • Xiude Hua
  • Minghua WangEmail author
Research Article


A soil chemical barrier is the most important and common way to control termites; fast and on-site detection methods are significant tools to verify pesticide content meeting the standard requirements. In this study, conventional and enhanced immunochromatographic assays (ICAs) containing two test lines (TLs) were developed to semi-quantitatively detect imidacloprid in soil chemical barrier, and detection results were quantified by a smart phone. According to the results, the disappearance concentrations of first TL (TL-1) and second TL (TL-2) in an enhanced ICA and conventional ICA were 5 and 20 ng/mL and 20 and 80 ng/mL with the naked eye. The sensitivity of TL-2 was four times that of TL-1 in both ICAs, consistent with the maximum and minimum concentration differences for imidacloprid in Jiangsu province’s “the technical regulation of assay and evaluation on chemical soil barrier of termite prevention treatment in buildings”. The results of TLs can be used to judge whether the amount of imidacloprid in soil chemical barrier meets the standard. Enhanced and conventional ICAs were available for further quantitative testing with a smart phone, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.74 and 3.17 ng/mL, respectively. Moreover, some soil chemical barrier samples from several areas in Wuxi, Jiangsu province, were used to test by ICAs and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the results of ICAs correlated well with HPLC.


Imidacloprid Immunochromatographic assay Soil chemical barrier On-site detection Termite 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFF0210200), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (KYZ201618), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772194).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All animals used in this study and animal experiments were performed with the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals (license number SYXK (SU) 2017-0044)  by the Department of Science and Technology of Jiangsu province.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2707_MOESM1_ESM.docx (783 kb)
ESM1 (DOCX 782 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Plant Protection (State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application)Nanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

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