Performance and recovery of a completely separated partial nitritation and anammox process treating phenol-containing wastewater

  • Wei Wang
  • Chao Pang
  • Julian Muñoz Sierra
  • Zhenhu Hu
  • Xuesong Ren
Appropriate Technologies to Combat Water Pollution


Anammox process is considered as a promising technology for removing total nitrogen from low-strength ammonium and phenol-containing wastewater. However, it is still a challenge for the anammox process to treat high-strength ammonium and phenol-containing wastewater. A completely separated partial nitritation and anammox (CSPN/A) process was developed to remove total nitrogen from high-strength phenol-containing wastewater. About 92% of COD, 100% of phenol, and 82.4% of total nitrogen were successfully removed at a NH4+-N concentration of 200 mg L−1 with a phenol/NH4+-N mass ratio of 0.5 in the CSPN/A process. Furthermore, a shock loading of 300 mg phenol L−1 with a phenol/NH4+-N mass ratio of 1.5 led to a complete failure of partial nitritation, but the performance was rapidly recovered by the increase of NH4+-N concentration. Although the activities of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were severely inhibited at a phenol/NH4+-N mass ratio of 1.5, the enrichment of efficient phenol degraders in the CSPN stage could strengthen the performance robustness of partial nitritation and anammox process. Therefore, this study presented a new insight on the feasibility of the anammox process for treating high-strength ammonium and phenol-containing wastewater.


Partial nitritation Anammox process Phenol Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Performance robustness Phenol degraders 



This work was supported by the CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, University of Science and Technology of China (KF201702), National Science Foundation of China (51208164), and Project of Science and Technology in Anhui Province of China (1501041130).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2701_MOESM1_ESM.doc (23 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 23 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao Pang
    • 1
  • Julian Muñoz Sierra
    • 3
    • 4
  • Zhenhu Hu
    • 1
  • Xuesong Ren
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Municipal Engineering, School of Civil and Hydraulic EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Chinese Academy of SciencesUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  3. 3.Section Sanitary Engineering, Department of Water ManagementDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  4. 4.KWR Watercycle Research InstituteNieuwegeinThe Netherlands

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