Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 26, pp 26446–26460 | Cite as

New applied pharmacological approach/trend on utilization of agro-industrial wastes

  • Tamer I. M. RagabEmail author
  • Al Shimaa Gamal Shalaby
  • Sally A. El Awdan
  • Ahmed Refaat
  • Wafaa A. Helmy
Research Article


This study aimed to transform the locally available lignocellulosic residual palm frond (PF) and rice straw (RS) wastes into multifunction added products like methylated cellulose and sulfated and phosphorylated hemicelluloses by simple processes. Hydrolysis with 2 N sulfuric acid was the most suitable reaction for microcrystalline cellulose production. The characteristics of the prepared products were studied to obtain the optimum reaction conditions. Palm frond hemicellulose (PFHC) recorded the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans (22, 22, 26 mm), respectively, and phosphorylated palm frond hemicellulose (PPFHC) exhibited the highest potential antioxidant activity of approximately 60%, suggesting a possible correlation between the two bioactivities. Most of extracted celluloses and their derivatives had a variety of promising probiotic activities which are expected to reduce the side effects of the gastric mucosa and possibly play a role in curing the gastric ulcer. Accordingly, the determination of anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activity results revealed that methylcellulose, sulfated and phosphorylated hemicelluloses showed anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities and the capability of all tested compounds to ameliorate the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats’ stomach. All results recommended PF and RS and their derivatives to be used as a medicinal food.


Microcrystalline cellulose Sulfated and phosphorylated hemicelluloses Methylcellulose Gastroprotective Gastric ulcer and carrageenan 


Funding information

The authors thank Prof. Dr. Mona Esawy Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, Division of Pharmaceutical Industry, and National Research Center for supporting and funding this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Animal procedures were performed in accordance with the Ethics Committee of the National Research Centre and followed the recommendations of the National Institutes of Health Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH., 1985).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamer I. M. Ragab
    • 1
    Email author
  • Al Shimaa Gamal Shalaby
    • 1
  • Sally A. El Awdan
    • 2
  • Ahmed Refaat
    • 3
  • Wafaa A. Helmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research CentreGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, National Research CentreGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Spectroscopy Department, National Research CentreCairoEgypt

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