Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 26, pp 25880–25887 | Cite as

An approach to the heating dynamics of residues from greenhouse-crop plant biomass originated by tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum, L.)

  • Eduardo Garzón
  • Laura Morales
  • Isabel María Ortiz-Rodríguez
  • Pedro José Sánchez-Soto
Research Article


The most representative of greenhouse-crop plant biomass residues of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were selected for this study by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The heating dynamics in air in the 600–1150 °C range of these residues for the production of renewable energy and the resultant ashes have been investigated. A total of 11 elements were determined by XRF in the biomass ashes and some minor elements. The content of alkaline elements and chlorides decreased as increasing heating temperature and disappeared at 1150 °C. Alkaline salts, NaCl and KCl, were volatilized by heating since 800 °C. The total contents of S and P in the biomass ashes were associated to CaSO4, and a complex phosphate identified by XRD. CaCO3 present at 600 °C was decomposed to CaO with disappearance at 1000 °C. By heating, new silicates were formed by solid-state reactions in the biomass residue. The minor elements have been found in a relative proportion lower than 0.9 wt.% and they characterized the obtained ashes, with potential use as micronutrients.


Biomass residues Greenhouse-crops Tomatoes Heating transformations XRF chemical analysis Heating dynamics 



The XRF analytical results were performed and checked at Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), which is kindly acknowledged. The help in the identification of crystalline phases by XRD techniques provided by Dr. J.M.ª Martínez-Blanes is acknowledged. The company “Transportes y Contenedores Antonio Morales” is also acknowledged because its support has facilitated the collection of biomass samples in a Treatment Plant of greenhouse crop plant residues. Finally, the financial support of Andalusia Regional Government (2014-2016) to this investigation through Research Groups AGR 107 and TEP 204 is recognized.


  1. Arvelakis S, Sotiriou C, Moutsatsou A, Koukios EG (1999) Prediction of the behaviour of biomass ash in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. J Therm Anal Calorim 56:1271–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arvelakis S, Gehrmann H, Beckmann M, Kaukias EG (2003) Studying the ash behaviour of agricultural residues using thermal analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim 72:1019–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bogdanović I, Fazinić S, Itskos S, Jakšić M, Karydas E, Katselis V, Paradellis T, Tadić T, Valković O, Valković V (1995) Trace element characterization of coal-fly ash particles. Nucl Instr Meth B 99:402–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Callejón-Ferre AJ, Velázquez-Martí B, López-Martínez JA, Manzano-Agugliaro F (2011) Greenhouse crop residues: energy potential and models for the prediction of their higher heating value. Renew Sust Energy Rev 15(2):948–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Callejón-Ferre AJ, Manzano-Agugliaro F, Díaz-Pérez M, Carreño-Ortega A, Pérez-Alonso J (2009) Effect of shading with aluminised screens on fruit production and quality in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under greenhouse condition. Span J Agric Res 7(1):41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Callejón AJ, Carreño A, Sánchez-Hermosilla J, Pérez J (2010) Environmental impact of an agricultural solid waste disposal and transformation plant in the province of Almería (Spain). Inf Constr 62:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Callejón-Ferre AJ, Carreño-Sánchez J, Suárez-Medina FJ, Pérez-Alonso J, Velázquez-Martí B (2014) Prediction models for higher heating value based on the structural analysis of the biomass of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almería (Spain). Fuel 116:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cereda E, Braga Marcazzan GM, Pedretti M, Brime GW, Baldacci A (1995a) Nuclear microscopy for the study of coal combustion related phenomena. Nucl Instr Meth B 99:414–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cereda E, Braga Marcazzan GM, Pedretti M, Brime GW, Baldacci A (1995b) Occurrence mode of major and trace elements in individual fly-ash particles. Nucl Instr Meth B 104:625–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cioablă AE, Pop N, Calinou DG, Trif-Torda G (2015) An experimental approach to the chemical properties and the ash melting behavior in agricultural biomass. J Therm Anal Calorim 121:421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Sena E, Langsberger S, Pena JT, Wisseman S (1995) Analysis of ancient pottery from the Palatine Hill in Rome. J Radionucl Nucl Chem 196:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demirbaş A (2004) Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Prog Energy Combust 30(2):219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duminuco P, Messiga B, Riccardi MP (1998) Firing process of natural clays. Some microtextures and related phase compositions. Thermochim Acta 321:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Etiegni L, Campbell AG (1991) Physical and chemical characteristics of wood ash. Bioresour Technol 37(2):173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Febrero L, Granada E, Pérez C, Patiño D, Arce E (2014) Characterisation and comparison of biomass ashes with different thermal histories using tg-dsc. J Therm Anal Calorim 118:669–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernández-Pereira C, de la Casa JA, Gómez-Barea A, Arroyo F, Leiva C, Luna Y (2011) Application of biomass gasification fly ash for brick manufacturing. Fuel 90:220–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garzón E, Sánchez-Soto PJ (2015) An improved method for determining the external specific surface area and the plasticity index of clayey samples based on a simplified method for non-swelling fine-grained soils. Appl Clay Sci 115:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garzón E, García-Rodríguez IG, Ruiz-Conde A, Sánchez-Soto PJ (2009) Phyllites used as waterproofing layer materials for greenhouse crops in Spain: multivariate statistical analysis applied to their classification based on X-ray fluorescence analysis. X-Ray Spectrom 38:429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garzón E, Morales L, Martínez-Blanes JM, Sánchez-Soto PJ (2017) Characterization of ashes from greenhouse crops plant biomass residues using X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction. X-Ray Spectrom 46:569–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Górecka H, Chojnacka K, Górecki H (2006) The application of ICP-MS and ICP-OES in determination of micronutrients in wood ashes used as soil conditioners. Talanta 70:950–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Król D, Poskrobko S (2012) Waste and fuels from waste. Part I. Analysis of thermal decomposition. J Thermal Anal Calorim 109(2):619–628Google Scholar
  22. Magdziarz A, Wilk M (2013) Thermal characteristics of the combustion process of biomass and sewage sludge. J Therm Anal Calorim 114:519–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Magdziarz A, Dalai AK, Koziński JA (2016a) Chemical composition, character and reactivity of renewable fuel ashes. Fuel 176:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Magdziarz A, Wilk M, Gajek M, Nowak-Wózny D, Kopia A, Kalemba-Rec I, Koziński JA (2016b) Properties of ash generated during sewage sludge combustion: a multifaceted analysis. Energy 113:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marcelis LFM, Heuvenlik E, De Koning ANM (1989) Dynamic simulation of dry matter distribution in greenhouse crops. Acta Hortic (248):269–276Google Scholar
  26. Marcelis LFM (1993) Simulation of biomass allocation in greenhouse crops: a review. Acta Hortic (328):49–67Google Scholar
  27. Misra MK, Ragland KW, Baker AJ (1993) Wood ash composition as a function of furnace temperature. Biomass Bionergy 4:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morales L, Garzón E, Martínez-Blanes JM, Sánchez-Soto PJ (2017) Thermal study of residues from greenhouse crops plant biomass. J Therm Anal Calorim (accepted, in press)Google Scholar
  29. Nogales R, Delgado G, Quirantes M, Romero M, Romero E, Molina-Alcaide E (2011) Recycling of biomass ashes. Springer, H. Insam and B.A. Knapp (eds) 5:57–68Google Scholar
  30. Niskanen E (1964) Reduction of orientation effects in the quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of kaolin mineral. Am Mineral 49:705–714Google Scholar
  31. Perrotta AJ, Grubbs DK, Martin ES, Dando NR, McKinstry HA, Huarg CY (1989) Chemical stabilization of β-Cristobalite. J Am Ceram Soc 72:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Riccardi MP, Messiga B, Duminuco P (1999) An approach to the dynamics of clay firing. Appl Clay Sci 15:393–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sánchez-Soto PJ, Macías M, Pérez-Rodríguez JL (1993) Effects of mechanical treatment on X-ray diffraction line broadening in Pyrophyllite. J Am Ceram Soc 76:180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sánchez-Soto PJ, Ruiz-Conde A, Bono R, Raigón M, Garzón E (2007) Thermal evolution of a slate. J Thermal Anal Calorim 90:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Somerset VS, Petrik LF, White RA, Klink MJ, Key D, Iwuoha E (2004) The use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis in predicting the alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash precipitates into zeolites. Talanta 64:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stevens J, Hand RJ, Sharp JH (1997) Polymorphism of silica. J Mater Sci 32:2929–2935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Strezov V, Moghtaderi B, Lucas JA (2003) Thermal study of decomposition of selected biomass samples. J Therm Anal Calorim 72:1041–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suárez-García F, Martínez-Alonso A, Fernández-Llorente M, Tascón JMD (2002) Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks. Fuel 81(9):1161–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Udagawa S, Urabe K, Hasu H (1974) The crystal structure of muscovite dehydroxylated. Jap Assoc Miner Petrol Econ Geol 69:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vassilev SV, Baxter D, Andersen LK, Vassileva CG (2013a) An overview of the composition and application of biomass ash. Part 1. Phase–mineral and chemical composition and classification. Fuel 105:40–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vassilev SV, Baxter D, Andersen LK, Vassileva CG (2013b) An overview of the composition and application of biomass ash.: part 2. Potential utilisation, technological and ecological advantages and challenges. Fuel 105:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de IngenieríaUniversidad de AlmeríaAlmeríaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de MatemáticasUniversidad de AlmeríaAlmeríaSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciencia de MaterialesCentro Mixto Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)–Universidad de SevillaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations