An approach to the heating dynamics of residues from greenhouse-crop plant biomass originated by tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum, L.)
The most representative of greenhouse-crop plant biomass residues of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were selected for this study by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The heating dynamics in air in the 600–1150 °C range of these residues for the production of renewable energy and the resultant ashes have been investigated. A total of 11 elements were determined by XRF in the biomass ashes and some minor elements. The content of alkaline elements and chlorides decreased as increasing heating temperature and disappeared at 1150 °C. Alkaline salts, NaCl and KCl, were volatilized by heating since 800 °C. The total contents of S and P in the biomass ashes were associated to CaSO4, and a complex phosphate identified by XRD. CaCO3 present at 600 °C was decomposed to CaO with disappearance at 1000 °C. By heating, new silicates were formed by solid-state reactions in the biomass residue. The minor elements have been found in a relative proportion lower than 0.9 wt.% and they characterized the obtained ashes, with potential use as micronutrients.
KeywordsBiomass residues Greenhouse-crops Tomatoes Heating transformations XRF chemical analysis Heating dynamics
The XRF analytical results were performed and checked at Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), which is kindly acknowledged. The help in the identification of crystalline phases by XRD techniques provided by Dr. J.M.ª Martínez-Blanes is acknowledged. The company “Transportes y Contenedores Antonio Morales” is also acknowledged because its support has facilitated the collection of biomass samples in a Treatment Plant of greenhouse crop plant residues. Finally, the financial support of Andalusia Regional Government (2014-2016) to this investigation through Research Groups AGR 107 and TEP 204 is recognized.
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