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The contribution of wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi during the last half-century

Abstract

To address the contribution of long-term wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Northern European lakes, an in situ observation of wind waves was conducted to calibrate a wind-wave numerical model for Lake Pyhäjärvi, which is the largest lake in southwest Finland. Using station-measured hydrometeorological data from 1963 to 2013 and model-simulated wind waves, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to assess the changing trend and main influences on ice period. Ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi decreased significantly over 51 years (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). The analysis of main hydrometeorological factors to ice period showed that the significant air temperature rise is the main contributor for the diminishing of ice period in the lake. Besides air temperature, wind-induced waves can also weaken lake ice by increasing water mixing and lake ice breakage. The regression indicated that mean significant wave height in December and April was negatively related to ice period (r = − 0.48, P < 0.01). These results imply that long-term changes of wind waves related to climate change should be considered to fully understand the reduction of aquatic ice at high latitudes.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC04052), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41621002, 41230744, 41471021, 41301531, 41661134036), and Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. QYZDJSSWDQC008). The authors thank Finnish Environment Institute and Finnish Meteorological Institute for providing all of the data used in this study. The data are listed in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and in Fig. S1 (Supplement).

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Correspondence to Boqiang Qin.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Wu, T., Qin, B., Zhu, G. et al. The contribution of wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi during the last half-century. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 24895–24906 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2552-7

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Keywords

  • Lake Pyhäjärvi
  • SWAN model
  • Wind waves
  • Lake ice period
  • Climate change
  • High latitudes