Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The contribution of wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi during the last half-century


To address the contribution of long-term wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Northern European lakes, an in situ observation of wind waves was conducted to calibrate a wind-wave numerical model for Lake Pyhäjärvi, which is the largest lake in southwest Finland. Using station-measured hydrometeorological data from 1963 to 2013 and model-simulated wind waves, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to assess the changing trend and main influences on ice period. Ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi decreased significantly over 51 years (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). The analysis of main hydrometeorological factors to ice period showed that the significant air temperature rise is the main contributor for the diminishing of ice period in the lake. Besides air temperature, wind-induced waves can also weaken lake ice by increasing water mixing and lake ice breakage. The regression indicated that mean significant wave height in December and April was negatively related to ice period (r = − 0.48, P < 0.01). These results imply that long-term changes of wind waves related to climate change should be considered to fully understand the reduction of aquatic ice at high latitudes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. Bailey MC, Hamilton DP (1997) Wind induced sediment resuspension: a lake-wide model. Ecol Model 99:217–228

  2. Bennetts LG, Alberello A, Meylan MH, Cavaliere C, Babanin AV, Toffoli A (2015) An idealised experimental model of ocean surface wave transmission by an ice floe. Ocean Model 96:85–92

  3. Blenckner T, Chen D (2003) Comparisons of the impact of regional and North Atlantic atmospheric circulation on an aquatic ecosystem. Clim Res 23:131–136

  4. Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third-generation wave model for coastal regions, part I, model description and validation. J Geophys Res 104(C4):7649–7666

  5. Bottema M, Vledder GPV (2009) A ten-year data set for fetch- and depth-limited wave growth. Coast Eng 56(7):703–725

  6. CERC (1984) Shore protection manual. USA Army Coastal Eng. Res. Center, Ft. Belvoir, Va., USA

  7. Elo AR, Huttula T, Peltonen A, Virta J (1998) The effects of climate change on the temperature conditions of lakes. Boreal Environ Res 3:137–150

  8. Fairall CW, Bradley EF, Godfrey JS, Wick GA, Edson JB, Young GS (1996) Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature. J Geophys Res 101(C1):1295–1308

  9. Frankenstein S, Løset S, Shen HH (2001) Wave–ice interactions in Barents Sea marginal ice zone. J Cold Reg Eng 15(2):91–102

  10. Friehe CA, Schmitt KF (1976) Parameterization of air-sea interface fluxes of sensible heat and moisture by bulk aerodynamic formulas. J Phys Oceanogr 6(6):801–809

  11. Gastineau G, Soden BJ (2009) Model projected changes of extreme wind events in response to global warming. Geophys Res Lett 36(10):92–103

  12. George DG, Järvinen M, Arvola L (2004) The influence of North Atlantic oscillation on the winter characteristic of Windermere (UK) and Pääjärvi (Finland). Boreal Environ Res 9:389–399

  13. George G (2010) The impact of climate change on European lakes. Springer, Dordrecht.

  14. Gilgen H, Wild M, Ohmura A (1998) Means and trends of shortwave irradiance at the surface estimated from global energy balance archive data. J Clim 11:2042–2061

  15. Gillett NP, Fyfe JC (2013) Annular mode changes in the CMIP5 simulations. Geophys Res Lett 40:1189–1193

  16. Goda Y (2000) Random seas and design of maritime structures. World Scientific Press, Singapore

  17. Hilmer M, Lemke P (2000) On the decrease of Arctic Sea ice volume. Geophys Res Lett 27(22):3751–3754

  18. Hofmann H, Lorke A, Peeters F (2008) The relative importance of wind and ship waves in the littoral zone of a large lake. Limnol Oceanogr 53:368–380

  19. Hu A, Rooth C, Bleck R, Deser C (2002) NAO influence on sea ice extent in the Eurasian coastal region. Geophys Res Lett 29(22):2053–2056

  20. Huttula T, Peltonen A, Bilaletdin Ä, Saura M (1992) The effects of climatic change on lake ice and water temperature. Aqua Fennica 22(2):129–142

  21. Huttula T (1994) Suspended sediment transport in Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi. Aqua Fennica 24(2):171–185

  22. Inall ME, Murray T, Cottier FR, Scharrer K, Boyd TJ, Heywood KJ, Bevan SL (2014) Oceanic heat delivery via Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord to the south-east Greenland ice sheet. J Geophys Res Oceans 119:631–645

  23. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

  24. Jin KR, Ji ZG (2001) Calibration and verification of a spectral wind-wave model for Lake Okeechobee. Ocean Eng 28:571–584

  25. Johannessen OM, Bengtsson L, Miles MW, Kuzmina SI, Semenov VA, Alekseev GV, Nagurnyi AP, Zakharov VF, Bobylev LP, Pettersson LH, Hasselmann K, Cattle HP (2004) Arctic climate change: observed and modeled temperature and sea-ice variability. Tellus 56A:328–341

  26. Kohout AL, Williams MJM, Dean SM, Meylan MH (2014) Storm-induced sea ice breakup and the implications for ice extent. Nature 509:604–607

  27. Korhonen J (2006) Long-term trends in lake ice cover in Finland. Proceedings of the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice: 71–78

  28. Langhorne PJ, Squire VA, Fox C, Haskell TG (1998) Break-up of sea ice by ocean waves. Ann Glaciol 27:438–442

  29. Large WG, Caron JM (2015) Diurnal cycling of sea surface temperature, salinity, and current in the CESM coupled climate model. J Geophys Res Oceans 120:3711–3729

  30. Leppäranta M (2015) Freezing of lakes and the evolution of their ice cover. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi:

  31. Longuet-Higgins MS, Cartwright DE, Smith ND (1963) Observations of the directional spectrum of sea waves using the motions of a floating buoy. In: ocean wave spectra, proceedings of a conference at Easton MD, may 1961. Prentice-hall, Englewood cliffs, NJ, pp:111–136

  32. Luettich RA, Harleman DRF, Somlyody L (1990) Dynamic behavior of suspended sediment concentrations in a shallow lake perturbed by episodic wind events. Limnol Oceanogr 35:1050–1067

  33. Lynch AH, Serreze MC, Cassano EN, Crawford AD, Stroeve J (2016) Linkages between Arctic summer circulation regimes and regional sea ice anomalies. J Geophys Res Atmos 121:7868–7880

  34. Massom RA, Stammerjohn SE (2010) Antarctic sea ice variability: physical and ecological implications. Polar Sci 4:149–458

  35. Maynord ST (2005) Wave height from planning and semi-planing small boats. River Res Appl 21:1–17

  36. McVicar TR, Roderick ML, Donohue RJ, Li LT, Van Niel TG, Thomas A, Grieser J, Jhajharia D, Himri Y, Mahowald NM, Mescherskaya AV, Kruger AC, Rehman S, Dinpashoh Y (2012) Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: implications for evaporation. J Hydrol 416–417:182–205

  37. Meadows GA, Meadows LA, Wood WL, Hubertz JM, Perlin M (1997) The relationship between Great Lakes water levels, wave energies, and shoreline damage. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78:675–683

  38. Nürnberg GK, Tarvainen M, Ventelä AM, Sarvala J (2012) Internal phosphorus load estimation during biomanipulation in a large polymictic and mesotrophic lake. Inland Waters 2:147–162

  39. Pryor SC, Barthelmie RJ, Kjellström E (2005) Potential climate change impact on wind energy resources in northern Europe: analyses using a regional climate model. Clim Dynam 25:815–835

  40. Russak V (1996) Atmospheric aerosol variability in Estonia calculated from solar radiation measurements. Tellus 48A:786–791

  41. Sahlberg J (1983) A hydrodynamical model for calculating the vertical temperature profile in lakes during cooling. Hydrol Res 14(4):239–254

  42. Smith DM, Scaife AA, Eade R, Knight JR (2016) Seasonal to decadal prediction of the winter North Atlantic oscillation: emerging capability and future prospects. Q J R Meteorol Soc 142:611–617

  43. Squire VA (2007) Of ocean waves and sea-ice revisited. Cold Reg Sci Technol 49:110–133

  44. Squire VA, Dugan JP, Wadhams P, Rottier PJ, Liu AK (1995) Of ocean waves and sea ice. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 27:115–168

  45. Steele M (1992) Sea ice melting and floe geometry in a simple ice-ocean model. J Geophys Res Oceans 97(C11):17729–17738

  46. Straile D, Livingstone DM, Weyhenmeyer GA, George DG (2003) The response of freshwater ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Ottersen G, Visbeck M (eds) The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 263–279

  47. Stroeve JC, Markus T, Boisvert L, Miller J, Barrett A (2014) Changes in Arctic melt season and implications for sea ice loss. Geophys Res Lett 41:1216–1225

  48. Stroeve J, Dirk N (2015) Insights on past and future sea-ice evolution from combining observations and models. Glob Planet Chang 135:119–132

  49. Sullivan PP, McWilliams JC (2002) Turbulent flow over water waves in the presence of stratification. Phys Fluids 14:1182–1195

  50. Vautard R, Cattiaux J, Yiou P, Thépaut JN, Ciais P (2010) Northern hemisphere atmospheric stilling partly attributed to increased surface roughness. Nat Geosci 3(11):756–761

  51. Ventelä AM, Amsinck SL, Kauppila T, Johansson LS, Jeppesen E, Kirkkala T, Søndergaard M, Weckström J, Sarvala J (2016) Ecosystem change in the large and shallow Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi, Finland, during the past ~400 years: implications for management. Hydrobiologia 778(1):273–294

  52. Ventelä AM, Tarvainen M, Helminen H, Sarvala J (2007) Long-term management of Pyhäjärvi (Southwest Finland): eutrophication, restoration–recovery? Lake Reserv Manage 23:428–438

  53. Ventelä AM, Kirkkala T, Lendasse A, Tarvainen M, Helminen H, Sarvala J (2011) Climate-related challenges in long-term management of Säkylän Pyhäjärvi (SW Finland). Hydrobiologia 660:49–58

  54. Wadhams P, Gill AE, Linden PF (1979) Transects by submarine of the East Greenland polar front. Deep Sea Res 26:1311–1327

  55. Wadhams P, Squire VA, Goodman DJ, Cowan AM, Moore SC (1987) The attenuation of ocean waves in the marginal ice zone. J Geophys Res 93(C6):6799–6818

  56. Wang X, Key JR, Liu Y (2010) A thermodynamic model for estimating sea and lake ice thickness with optical satellite data. J Geophys Res 115:C12035.

  57. Weyhenmeyer GA, Blenckner T, Pettersson K (1999) Changes in the plankton spring outburst related to the North Atlantic oscillation. Limnol Oceanogr 44:1788–1792

  58. Williams TD, Bennetts LG, Squire VA, Dumont D, Bertino L (2013) Wave–ice interactions in the marginal ice zone. Part 1: theoretical foundations. Ocean Model 71:81–91

  59. Wu TF, Qin BQ, Zhu GW, Zhu MY, Li W, Luan C (2013) Modeling of turbidity dynamics caused by short-term, strong wind-induced waves and current in a large, shallow lake. Int J Sediment Res 28:139–148

  60. Xu X, Tao R, Zhao Q, Wu T (2013) Wave characteristics and sensitivity analysis of wind field in a large shallow Lake-Lake Taihu. J Lake Sci 25(1):55–64

  61. Zhao QH, Sun JH, Zhu GW (2012) Simulation and exploration of the mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal distribution of surface mixed layer depth in a large shallow Lake. Adv Atmos Sci 29(6):1360–1373

Download references


This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC04052), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41621002, 41230744, 41471021, 41301531, 41661134036), and Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. QYZDJSSWDQC008). The authors thank Finnish Environment Institute and Finnish Meteorological Institute for providing all of the data used in this study. The data are listed in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and in Fig. S1 (Supplement).

Author information

Correspondence to Boqiang Qin.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Electronic supplementary material

Figure S1

(DOCX 402 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wu, T., Qin, B., Zhu, G. et al. The contribution of wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi during the last half-century. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 24895–24906 (2018).

Download citation


  • Lake Pyhäjärvi
  • SWAN model
  • Wind waves
  • Lake ice period
  • Climate change
  • High latitudes