Fast depletion of conventional automobile fuels and environmental pollution due to exhaust emission are the issues of great importance. Improvement in engine performance and emission control is quite difficult to handle simultaneously. The fuel properties can be improved substantially by incorporation of additives in different proportions to get better emission standard without deteriorating the engine performance. The aim of current study is to review/summarize the effects of various organic additives on the engine performance (i.e., brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, etc.) and emissions (i.e., carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and other harmful compounds). The physico-chemical and combustion properties (i.e., density, latent heat, dynamic viscosity, flash point, boiling point, cetane number, oxygen content, lower heating value, auto-ignition temperature, etc.) of various additives were also discussed to check the suitability of additives with diesel. Finally, limitations and opportunities using organic additives with respect to engine performance and combustion were discussed to guide future research and improvement in this field.
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After top dead center
Brake mean effective pressure
Brake specific energy consumption
Brake specific fuel consumption
Before top dead center
Brake thermal efficiency
- CO2 :
Common rail direct injection
2-Ethoxy ethyl acetate
Ethylene glycol monoacetate
Exhaust gas recirculation
Ethyl ter-butyl ether
2-Ethoxy ethyl ether
Energy Information Administration
Homogeneous charge compression ignition
Indicated mean effective pressure
Indicated thermal efficiency
2-Methoxy ethyl acetate
2-Methoxy ethyl ether
Parts per million
Revolutions per minute
Reactivity controlled compression ignition
Selective catalytic reduction
Ter-amyl ethyl ether
Ultralow sulfur diesel
Variable compression ratio
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The authors are grateful to Rajasthan Technical University (RTU), Kota and Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, for providing the research facility to conduct this study. Special thanks to Prof. S. L. Surana (Director Academics), Mrs. Rachna Meel (Registrar) and Prof. R. K. Pachar (Principal) SKIT, Jaipur for their kind support and motivation.
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
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Kumar, C., Rana, K.B., Tripathi, B. et al. Properties and effects of organic additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine: a comprehensive review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 22475–22498 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2537-6
- Combustion properties
- Diesel engine
- Organic additives
- Physico-chemical properties