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Properties and effects of organic additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine: a comprehensive review

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Abstract

Fast depletion of conventional automobile fuels and environmental pollution due to exhaust emission are the issues of great importance. Improvement in engine performance and emission control is quite difficult to handle simultaneously. The fuel properties can be improved substantially by incorporation of additives in different proportions to get better emission standard without deteriorating the engine performance. The aim of current study is to review/summarize the effects of various organic additives on the engine performance (i.e., brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, etc.) and emissions (i.e., carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and other harmful compounds). The physico-chemical and combustion properties (i.e., density, latent heat, dynamic viscosity, flash point, boiling point, cetane number, oxygen content, lower heating value, auto-ignition temperature, etc.) of various additives were also discussed to check the suitability of additives with diesel. Finally, limitations and opportunities using organic additives with respect to engine performance and combustion were discussed to guide future research and improvement in this field.

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Abbreviations

ATDC:

After top dead center

BP:

Brake power

BMEP:

Brake mean effective pressure

BSEC:

Brake specific energy consumption

BSFC:

Brake specific fuel consumption

BTDC:

Before top dead center

BTE:

Brake thermal efficiency

°C:

Degree centigrade

CA:

Crank angle

CI:

Compression ignition

CO:

Carbon monoxide

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

CR:

Compression ratio

CRDI:

Common rail direct injection

cSt:

Centistokes

DI:

Direct injection

DME:

Dimethyl ether

DMF:

Dimethyl furan

DNBE:

Di-n-buthyl ether

EEA:

2-Ethoxy ethyl acetate

EGM:

Ethylene glycol monoacetate

EGR:

Exhaust gas recirculation

ETBE:

Ethyl ter-butyl ether

EXEE:

2-Ethoxy ethyl ether

EIA:

Energy Information Administration

HC:

Hydrocarbon

HCCI:

Homogeneous charge compression ignition

IMEP:

Indicated mean effective pressure

ITE:

Indicated thermal efficiency

kg:

Kilogram

kJ:

Kilojoules

l:

Liter

m:

Meter

MEA:

2-Methoxy ethyl acetate

MJ:

Mega joule

MPa:

Mega Pascal

MT:

Metric tons

MXEE:

2-Methoxy ethyl ether

NE:

Nitroethane

NM:

Nitromethane

NOx:

Nitrogen oxides

PM:

Particulate matter

ppm:

Parts per million

rpm:

Revolutions per minute

RCCI:

Reactivity controlled compression ignition

SCR:

Selective catalytic reduction

TAEE:

Ter-amyl ethyl ether

UHC:

Unburnt hydrocarbon

ULSD:

Ultralow sulfur diesel

VCR:

Variable compression ratio

VE:

Volumetric efficiency

μmol:

Micromole

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Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Rajasthan Technical University (RTU), Kota and Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, for providing the research facility to conduct this study. Special thanks to Prof. S. L. Surana (Director Academics), Mrs. Rachna Meel (Registrar) and Prof. R. K. Pachar (Principal) SKIT, Jaipur for their kind support and motivation.

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Correspondence to Chandan Kumar.

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Kumar, C., Rana, K.B., Tripathi, B. et al. Properties and effects of organic additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine: a comprehensive review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 22475–22498 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2537-6

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Keywords

  • Combustion properties
  • Diesel engine
  • Emission
  • Organic additives
  • Performance
  • Physico-chemical properties