Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 25, pp 25162–25174 | Cite as

Levels, distribution, and ecological risk of organochlorines in red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis) from the Gulf of Izmir, Eastern Aegean, in 2009–2012

  • Lutfi Tolga GonulEmail author
  • Filiz Kucuksezgin
  • Idil Pazi
Research Article


Organochlorine (OCs) concentrations were measured in two fish species, Mullus barbatus and Diplodus annularis, collected from Izmir Gulf during 2009–2012 in order to explain the status of these contaminants in edible fish. No data is available on the levels of organochlorines in marine organism from Izmir Gulf. In both fish species from the study area, Aroclors were determined in higher concentrations than organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Maximum concentrations of OCPs and PCBs measured in the edible part of D. annularis were 45–165 and 530–1591 ng g−1 lipid weight (lw), respectively. DDTs (sum of DDT and metabolites) and cyclodienes ranged from 4–56 to 16–110 ng g−1 lw, respectively. The levels of DDTs measured in the present study were generally comparable or lower than those found in studies from other Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean regions. The potential risks for fish consumers were assessed. Although the estimated daily intake (EDI) for DDTs, heptachlor, and drins through the sampled fish species by Izmir inhabitants was quite lower than the ADI (acceptable daily intake) established by the FAO/WHO, EDI for Aroclor 1254 was close to the ADI value of 20 ng g−1 recommended by the IPCS (2000).


Ecological risk Fish Organochlorines Gulf of Izmir (Eastern Aegean) 


  1. Aksoy A, Guvenc D, Yavuz O, Das YK, Atmaca E (2012) Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide levels of sea and cultured farm fish in the Samsun region of Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:842–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albaiges J, Farran A, Soler M, Gallifa A, Martin P (1987) Accumulation and distribution of biogenic and pollutant hydrocarbons, PCB’s and DDT in tissues of western fishes. Mar Environ Res 22(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ameur WB, El Megdiche Y, Eljarrat E, Ben Hassine S, Badreddine B, Souad T, Bèchir H, Barceló D, Driss MR (2013) Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 88:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antunes P, Gil O (2004) PCB and DDT contamination in cultivated and wild sea bass from Ria de Aveiro, Portugal. Chemosphere 54:1503–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ATSDR (1987) Draft toxicological profile for aldrin/dieldrin. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, US Public Health Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlas NE (1999) Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in aquatic systems and organisms in upper Sakarya Basin, Türkiye. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 62:278–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayarri S, Baldassarri LT, Iacovella N, Ferrara F, di Domenico A (2001) PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDE in edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea. Chemosphere 43:601–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bindelman TF, Patton GW, Hinckley DA, Walla MD, Cotham WE, Hargrave BT (1990) Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of the Canadian arctic. In: Kurtz DA (ed) Long range transport of pesticides. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, pp 237–372Google Scholar
  9. Bodin N, Tapie N, Le Ménach K, Chassot E, Elie P, Rochard E, Budzinski H (2014) PCB contamination in fish community from the Gironde Estuary (France): blast from the past. Chemosphere 98:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canadian Food Inspection Agency (2014) Appendix 3. Canadian guidelines for chemical contaminants and toxins in fish and fish products. standardsmethods_appendix3_1406403090196_eng.pdf
  11. Chan CH, Bruce G, Harrison B (1994) Wet deposition of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to the Great Lakes. J Great Lakes Res 20:546–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coelhan M, Strohmeier J, Barlas H (2006) Organochlorine levels in edible fish from the Marmara Sea, Turkey. Environ Int 32:775–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Covaci A, Gheorghe A, Hulea O, Schepens P (2006) Levels and distribution of organochloride pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania. Environ Pollut 140:136–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Mora S, Fowler SW, Tolosa I, Villeneuve JP, Cattini C (2005) Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Mar Pollut Bull 50:835–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dietz R, Riget F, Cleemann M, Aarkrog A, Johansen P, Hansen JC (2000) Comparison of contaminants from different trophic levels and ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 245:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (1990) Risk assessment methodology for fish office of pesticide programs. Office of Research and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Fairey R, Tabersk K, Lamerdin S, Johnson E, Clark RP, Downing JW, Newman J, Petreas M (1997) Organochlorines and other environmental contaminants in muscle tissues of sport fish collected from San Francisco Bay. Mar Pollut Bull 34(12):1058–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FAO/WHO (1996) Pesticide residues in food: 1995 evaluations. Part I—residues. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 137Google Scholar
  19. FDA (2011) Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Food Safety. Fish and fishery products hazards and controls guidance. Fourth Edition – April 2011.
  20. Fisk AT, Norstrom RJ, Cymbalisty CD, Muir DCG (1998) Dietary accumulation and depuration of hydrophobic organochlorines: bioaccumulation parameters and their relationship with the octanol/water partition coefficient. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:951–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fleming LE, Broad K, Clement A, Dewailly E, Elmir S, Knap A, Pomponi SA, Smith S, Solo Gabriele H, Walsh P (2006) Oceans and human health: emerging public health risk in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 53:545–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fowler SW (1990) Critical review of selected heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons concentrations in the marine environment. Mar Environ Res 29:1–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fox WM, Connor L, Copplestone D, Johnson MS, Leah RT (2001) The organochlorine contamination history of the Mersey estuary, UK, revealed by analysis of sediment cores from salt marshes. Mar Environ Res 51:213–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Georgieva S, Stancheva M, Makedonski L (2012) Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in marine fish. Ovidius U Ann Chem 23(1):92–98Google Scholar
  25. Giouranovits-Psyllidou R, Georgakopoulos-Gregoriades E, Vassilopoulou V (1994) Monitoring of organochlorine residues in red mullet (Mullus barbatus) from Greek waters. Mar Pollut Bull 28(2):121–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hendy E, Peake BM (1996) Organochlorine pesticides in a dated sediment core from Mapua, Waimea Inlet, New Zealand. Mar Pollut Bull 32:751–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hitch RK, Day HR (1992) Unusual persistence of DDT in some Western USA soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 48:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hosseini SV, Behrooz RD, Esmaili-Sari A, Bahramifar N, Hosseini SM, Tahergorabi R, Hosseini SF, Feás X (2008) Contamination by organochlorine compound in the edible tissue of four sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea (Iran). Chemosphere 73:972–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hung DQ, Thiemann W (2002) Contamination by selected chlorinated pesticides in surface water in Hanoi, Vietnam. Chemosphere 47:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. IPCS (2000) International Chemical Safety Card—Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254). Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICSC 0939)Google Scholar
  31. IRIS (1974) Integrated risk information system. US Environmental Protection Agency Duluth, MNGoogle Scholar
  32. Kljaković-Gašpić Z, Romanić SH, Klinčić D, Tičina V (2015) Chlorinated compounds in the muscle tissue of fish from the Croatian Adriatic: preliminary data on contamination and the associated health risks. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 66:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klumpp DW, Huasheng H, Humphrey C, Xinhong W, Codi S (2002) Toxic contaminants and their biological effects in coastal waters of Xiamen, China. 1. Organic pollutants in mussel and fish tissues. Mar Pollut Bull 44:752–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Köprücü K (2007) Türkiye Su Ürünleri üretiminin durumu ve değerlendirilmesi. Türk Tarım Dergisi 178:22–28 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  35. Kucuksezgin F, Gonul LT (2012) Distribution and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in surficial sediments from the Eastern Aegean. Mar Pollut Bull 64:2549–2555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kucuksezgin F, Altay O, Uluturhan E, Kontas A (2001) Trace metal and organochlorine residue levels in red mullet (Mullus barbatus) from the eastern Aegean, Turkey. Water Res 35(9):2327–2332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumblad L, Olsson A, Koutny V, Berg H (2001) Distribution of DDT residues in fish from the Songkhla Lake, Thailand. Environ Pollut 112:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lanfranchi AL, Menone ML, Miglioranza KSB, Janiot LJ, Aizpún JE, Moreno VJ (2006) Striped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa): a biomonitor of organochlorine pesticides in estuarine and near-coastal zones. Mar Pollut Bull 52:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Masmoudi W, Romdhane MS, Khériji S, El Cafsi M (2007) Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) from Tunis Bay, Mediterranean Sea (Tunisia). Food Chem 105:72–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mwevura H, Othman OC, Mhehe GL (2002) Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments and biota from the coastal area of Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Mar Pollut Bull 45:262–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Naso B, Perrone D, Ferrante MC Bilancione M, Lucidano A (2005) Persistent organic pollutants in edible marine species from the Gulf of Naples, southern Italy. Sci Total Environ 343:83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nhan DD, Am NM, Hoi NC, Van DL, Carvalho FP, Villeneuve J-P, Cattini C (1998) Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the Red River delta, North Vietnam. Mar Pollut Bull 36(9):742–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pastor D, Boix J, Fernández V, Albaigés J (1996) Bioaccumulation of organochlorinated contaminants in three estuarine fish species (Mullus barbatus, Mugil cephalus and Dicentrarchus labrax). Mar Pollut Bull 32:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pazi I, Kucuksezgin F, Gonul LT (2011) Distribution and sources of organochlorinated contaminants in sediments from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea). Mar Pollut Bull 62:1115–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Perugini M, Lavaliere M, Giammarino A, Mazzone P, Olivieri V, Amorena M (2004) Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in some edible marine organisms from the Central Adriatic Sea. Chemosphere 57:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roots O (2001) Halogenated environmental contaminants in fish from Estonian coastal areas. Chemosphere 43:623–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Şahin Y (2011) AB ve İs Dünyası: Balıkçılık Sektörü. İktisadi Kalkınma Vakfı 38:1–12 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  48. Sarkar A, Nagarajan R, Chaphadkar S, Pal S, Singbal SYS (1997) Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India. Water Res 31:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sericano JL, Wade TL, Atlas EL, Brooks JM (1990) Historical perspective on the environmental availability of DDT and its derivatives to Gulf of Mexico oysters. Environ Sci Technol 24:1541–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stancheva M, Rizov T, Makedonski L, Georgieva S (2010) Organochlorine pollutants in bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Bulgaria Scientific Papers 37(5) ChemistryGoogle Scholar
  51. Stefanelli P, Di Muccio A, Ferrara F, Attard BD, Generali T, Pelosi P, Amendola G, Vanni F, Di Muccio S, Ausili A (2004) Estimation of intake of organochlorine pesticides and chlorobiphenyls through edible fishes from the Italian Adriatic Sea during 1997. Food Control 15:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. TCV (Environment Foundation of Turkey) (1998) Environmental Problems of Turkey ’99. p 464 (In Turkish)Google Scholar
  53. Tekin S, Pazi I (2017) POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:509–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1993) Guidelines for monitoring chemical contaminants in the sea using marine organisms. Reference Method No 6. In: UNEPGoogle Scholar
  55. UNESCO (1986) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean vol 2Google Scholar
  56. WHO (2010) Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the joint meeting on pesticide residues (JMPRs) through 2010Google Scholar
  57. Zhou R, Zhu L, Chen Y, Kong Q (2008) Concentrations and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic biota from Qiantang River in China. Environ Pollut 151:190–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lutfi Tolga Gonul
    • 1
    Email author
  • Filiz Kucuksezgin
    • 1
  • Idil Pazi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dokuz Eylul University Institute of Marine Sciences and TecnologyIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations