Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Combustion performance and exhaust emissions fuelled with non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from different water sources

Abstract

Non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (NWD) is an alternative fuel that has the potential to reduce major exhaust emissions while simultaneously improving the combustion performance of a diesel engine. NWD comprises of diesel fuel and water (about 5% in volume) without any additional surfactants. This emulsion fuel is produced through an in-line mixing system that is installed very close to the diesel engine. This study focuses mainly on the performance and emission of diesel engine fuelled with NWD made from different water sources. The engine used in this study is a direct injection diesel engine with loads varying from 1 to 4 kW. The result shows that NWD made from tap water helps the engine to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) by 32%. Rainwater reduced it by 29% and seawater by 19%. In addition, all NWDs show significant improvements in engine performance as compared to diesel fuel, especially in the specific fuel consumption that indicates an average reduction of 6%. It is observed that all NWDs show compelling positive effects on engine performance, which is caused by the optimum water droplet size inside NWD.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. Abu-Zaid M (2004) Performance of single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine using water fuel emulsions. Energy Convers Manag 45:697–705. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00179-1

  2. Aghbashlo M, Tabatabaei M, Khalife E, Najafi B, Mirsalim SM, Gharehghani A, Mohammadi P, Dadak A, Roodbar Shojaei T, Khounani Z (2017) A novel emulsion fuel containing aqueous nano cerium oxide additive in diesel–biodiesel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions: part II—exergetic analysis. Fuel 205:262–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FUEL.2017.05.003

  3. Aghbashlo M, Tabatabaei M, Khalife E, Roodbar Shojaei T, Dadak A (2018) Exergoeconomic analysis of a DI diesel engine fueled with diesel/biodiesel (B5) emulsions containing aqueous nano cerium oxide. Energy 149:967–978. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENERGY.2018.02.082

  4. Alahmer A, Yamin J, Sakhrieh A, Hamdan MA (2010) Engine performance using emulsified diesel fuel. Energy Convers Manag 51:1708–1713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.11.044

  5. Al-Sabagh AM, Emara MM, El-Din MRN, Aly WR (2012) Water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions prepared by high energy: emulsion drop size and stability, and emission characteristics. J Surfactant Deterg 15:139–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11743-011-1291-2

  6. Azlan A, Khoo HE, Idris MA, Ismail A, Razman MR (2012) Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia. Sci World J 10:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/403574

  7. Basha JS, Anand RB (2011) An experimental study in a CI engine using nanoadditive blended water–diesel emulsion fuel. Int J Green Energy 8:332–348. https://doi.org/10.1080/15435075.2011.557844

  8. Bidita BS, Suraya AR, Shazed MA, Mohd Salleh MA, Idris A (2014) Influence of fuel additive in the formulation and combustion characteristics of water-in-diesel nanoemulsion fuel. Energy Fuels 28:4149–4161. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef5002259

  9. Challen B, Baranescu R (1999) Diesel engine reference book, 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heineman

  10. Dryer FL (1977) Water addition to practical combustion systems—concepts and applications. Symp Combust:276–295

  11. Emberson DR, Ihracska B, Imran S, Diez A (2016) Optical characterization of diesel and water emulsion fuel injection sprays using shadowgraphy. Fuel 172:253–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.01.015

  12. Fahd MEA, Wenming Y, Lee PS, Chou SK, Yap CR (2013) Experimental investigation of the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine by water emulsion diesel under varying engine load condition. Appl Energy 102:1042–1049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.06.041

  13. Ghojel J, Honnery D, Al-Khaleefi K (2006) Performance, emissions and heat release characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating on diesel oil emulsion. Appl Therm Eng 26:2131–2141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.04.014

  14. Hasannuddin AK, Wira JY, Srithar R, Sarah S, Ahmad MI, Aizam SA, Aiman MAB, Zahari M, Watanabe S, Azrin MA, Mohd SS (2016) Effect of emulsion fuel on engine emissions—a review. Clean Techn Environ Policy 18:17–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-015-0986-x

  15. Hasannuddin AK, Yahya WJ, Sarah S, Ithnin AM, Syahrullail S, Sugeng DA, Razak IFA, Abd Fatah AY, Aqma WS, Rahman AHA, Ramlan NA (2018) Performance, emissions and carbon deposit characteristics of diesel engine operating on emulsion fuel. Energy 142:496–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENERGY.2017.10.044

  16. Henningsen S (1994) Influence of the fuel injection equipment on NOx emissions and particulates on a large heavy-duty two-stroke diesel engine operating on water-in-fuel emulsion. SAE Tech Pap. https://doi.org/10.4271/941783

  17. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill

  18. Ithnin AM, Noge H, Kadir HA, Jazair W (2014) An overview of utilizing water-in-diesel emulsion fuel in diesel engine and its potential research study. J Energy Inst 87(4):273–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joei.2014.04.002

  19. Ithnin AM, Ahmad MA, Bakar MAA, Rajoo S, Yahya WJ (2015) Combustion performance and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from low-grade diesel fuel. Energy Convers Manag 90:375–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.11.025

  20. Kadota T, Yamasaki H (2002) Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion. Prog Energy Combust Sci 28:385–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1285(02)00005-9

  21. Karisathan Sundararajan N, Ammal A, Bhagavathi R (2018) Improvement studies on emission and combustion characteristics of DICI engine fuelled with colloidal emulsion of diesel distillate of plastic oil, TiO2 nanoparticles and water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:11595–11613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1380-0

  22. Khalife E, Tabatabaei M, Demirbas A, Aghbashlo M (2017a) Impacts of additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines during steady state operation. Prog Energy Combust Sci 59:32–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2016.10.001

  23. Khalife E, Tabatabaei M, Najafi B, Mirsalim SM, Gharehghani A, Mohammadi P, Aghbashlo M, Ghaffari A, Khounani Z, Roodbar Shojaei T, Mohd Salleh MA (2017b) A novel emulsion fuel containing aqueous nano cerium oxide additive in diesel–biodiesel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions: part I—experimental analysis. Fuel 207:741–750. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FUEL.2017.06.033

  24. Khan MY, Abdul Karim ZA, Aziz ARA, Tan IM (2014) Experimental investigation of microexplosion occurrence in water in diesel emulsion droplets during the leidenfrost effect. Energy Fuels 28:7079–7084. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef501588z

  25. Khoon SH, Issabayeva GI, Lee LW (2011) Measurement of rainwater chemical composition in Malaysia based on ion chromatography method. Int J Environ Chem Ecol Geol Geophys Eng 5:692–699

  26. Klemeš JJ (2010) Environmental policy decision-making support tools and pollution reduction technologies: a summary. Clean Techn Environ Policy 12:587–589. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-010-0327-z

  27. Kumar INN, Prasad SC, Rao BVA (2002) Heat release rate analysis of a DI diesel engine using diesel and seawater semi-stable emulsion. SAE Techical Pap. https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-2719

  28. Lenin MA, Swaminathan MR, Kumaresan G (2013) Performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine with a nanofuel additive. Fuel 109:362–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.042

  29. Mehregan M, Moghiman M (2018) Experimental investigation of urea injection parameters influence on NOx emissions from blended biodiesel-fueled diesel engines. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:4303–4308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0817-1

  30. Mura E, Josset C, Loubar K, Huchet GBJ (2010) Effect of dispersed water droplet size in microexplosion phenomenon for water in oil emulsion. At Sprays 20:791–799. https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.v20.i9.40

  31. Mura E, Massoli P, Josset C, Loubar K, Bellettre J (2012) Study of the micro-explosion temperature of water in oil emulsion droplets during the Leidenfrost effect. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 43:63–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.03.027

  32. Murray JW (2004) Properties of water and seawater. University Washington

  33. Nuszkowski JP (2008) The effects of fuel additives on diesel engine emissions during steady state and transient operation. West Virginia University

  34. Ocampo-Barrera R, Villasenor R, Diego-Marin A (2001) An experimental study of the effect of water content on combustion of heavy fuel oil/water emulsion droplets. Combust Flame 126:1845–1855. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(01)00295-4

  35. Ochoterena R, Lif A, Nyden M et al (2010) Optical studies of spray development and combustion of water-in-diesel emulsion and microemulsion fuels. Fuel 89:122–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.06.039

  36. Pandian AK, Ramakrishnan RBB, Devarajan Y (2017) Emission analysis on the effect of nanoparticles on neat biodiesel in unmodified diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:23273–23278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9973-6

  37. Park S, Woo S, Kim H, Lee K (2016) Effect of diesel–water emulsified fuel on the NOx and PM emissions of a diesel engine. Energy Fuel 30:6070–6079. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00089

  38. Porras M, Solans C, González C, Gutiérrez JM (2008) Properties of water-in-oil (W/O) nano-emulsions prepared by a low-energy emulsification method. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp 324:181–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.04.012

  39. Ramlan NA, Yahya WJ, Ithnin AM, Hasannuddin AK, Norazni SA, Mazlan NA, Sugeng DA, Bahar ND, Koga T (2016) Performance and emissions of light-duty diesel vehicle fuelled with non-surfactant low grade diesel emulsion compared with a high grade diesel in Malaysia. Energy Convers Manag 130:192–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.10.057

  40. SAE Committee (2014) Surface vehicle standard J1995_201401. In: Engine power test code—spark ignition and compression ignition—gross power and torque rating. SAE International

  41. Shinjo J, Xia J, Ganippa LC, Megaritis A (2014) Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets. Phys Fluids 26:103302. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4897918

  42. Srinivasa Rao M, Anand RB (2016) Performance and emission characteristics improvement studies on a biodiesel fuelled DICI engine using water and AlO(OH) nanoparticles. Appl Therm Eng 98:636–645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.12.090

  43. Subramanian KA (2011) A comparison of water-diesel emulsion and timed injection of water into the intake manifold of a diesel engine for simultaneous control of NO and smoke emissions. Energy Convers Manag 52:849–857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.08.010

  44. Suryantoro MT, Sugiarto B, Mulyadi F (2016) Growth and characterization of deposits in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine fueled with B50 and Indonesian biodiesel fuel (IBF). Biofuel Res J 3:521–527. https://doi.org/10.18331/BRJ2016.3.4.6

  45. Szalkowska U (2010) IFQC glob EURO. In: Veh Emiss Terminol. pp 1–4

  46. Terry Barker (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report

  47. Tsukahara M, Yoshimoto Y, Murayama T (1989) Influence of emulsified fuel properties on the reduction of BSFC in a diesel engine. SAE Tech Pap. https://doi.org/10.4271/891841

  48. Vellaiyan S, Amirthagadeswaran KS (2016) The role of water-in-diesel emulsion and its additives on diesel engine performance and emission levels: a retrospective review. Alexandria Eng J 55:2463–2472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.07.021

  49. Yang Y (2017) Beyond the conventional “life cycle” assessment. Biofuel Res J 4:637. https://doi.org/10.18331/BRJ2017.4.3.2

  50. Yap CK, Chee MW, Shamarina S et al (2011) Assessment of surface water quality in the Malaysian coastal waters by using multivariate analyses (Penilaian Kualiti air Permukaan di Perairan Pantai Malaysia Menggunakan Analisis Multivariat). Sains Malaysiana 40:1053–1064

  51. Zeng Y, Lee CFF (2007) Modeling droplet breakup processes under micro-explosion conditions. Proc Combust Inst 31:2185–2193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2006.07.237

  52. Živković S, Veljković M (2018) Environmental impacts the of production and use of biodiesel. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:191–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0649-z

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to appreciate and express their gratitude to the Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT) for financial support through Grant PAS UTM (Q.K130000.2743.02K53).

Author information

Correspondence to Wira Jazair Yahya.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad, M.A., Yahya, W.J., Ithnin, A.M. et al. Combustion performance and exhaust emissions fuelled with non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from different water sources. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 24266–24280 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2492-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (NWD)
  • Different water sources
  • Droplets size
  • Engine performance
  • Exhaust emission