Integrated rice-duck farming decreases global warming potential and increases net ecosystem economic budget in central China
- 44 Downloads
Over the past decades, many attempts have been made to assess the effects of integrated rice-duck farming on greenhouse gas emissions, use efficient of energy, soil fertility, and economic significance. However, very few studies have been focused on the effects of the farming on net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). Here, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to comprehensively investigate the effects of ducks raised in paddy fields on CH4 and N2O emissions, global warming potential (GWP), rice grain yield, and NEEB in central China. The experiment included two treatments: integrated rice-duck farming (RD) and conventional rice farming (R). The introduction of ducks into the paddy fields markedly increased the rice grain yield due to enhanced tiller number and root bleeding rate. RD treatment significantly elevated the N2O emissions (p < 0.05) but decreased CH4 emissions (p < 0.05) during rice growing seasons compared with R treatment. Analysis of GWP based on CH4 and N2O emissions showed that compared with R treatment, RD treatment significantly decreased the GWP by 28.1 and 28.0% and reduced the greenhouse gas intensity by 30.6 and 29.8% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In addition, RD treatment increased NEEB by 40.8 and 39.7% respectively in 2009 and 2010 relative to R treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the integrated rice-duck farming system is an effective strategy to optimize the economic and environmental benefits of paddy fields in central China.
KeywordsCH4 Global warming potential Greenhouse gas intensity Integrated rice-duck farming N2O
We sincerely thank Dr. Philippe Garrigues, the Editor, and anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions and critical comments on the original manuscript.
This work is funded by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2017YFD0301403), Natural Science Foundation of China (31471454, 31671637, 31670447), and Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (2016CFA017).
- Hossain ST, Sugimoto H, Ahmed GJU, Islam MR (2005) Effect of integrated rice-duck farming on rice yield, farm productivity, and rice-provisioning ability of farmers. Asian J Agric Dev 2:79–86Google Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New YorkGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Li B, Fan CH, Zhang H, Chen ZZ, Sun LY, Xiong ZQ (2015) Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China. Atmos Environ 100:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Noguchi A, Kageyama M, Shinmachi F, Schmidhalter U, Hasegawa I (2005) Potential for using plantxylem sap to evaluate inorganic nutrient availability in soil - I. Influence of inorganic nutrients present in therhizosphere on those in the xylem sap of Luffa cylindrica Roem. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 51:333-341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Huang H, Yang ZH, Liao XL (2003) Integrated benefits of rice-duck complex ecosystem. J Eco Rural Environ 19:23–26 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang JP, Cao CG, Jin H, Liu FH (2006) Effects of rice-duck farming on aquatic community in rice fields. Sci Agric Sin 39:2001–2008 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang QS, Huang PS, Zhen RH, Jing LM, Tang HB, Zhang CM (2004) Effect of rice-duck mutualism on nutrition ecology of paddy field and rice quality. Chin J Appl Ecol 15:639–645 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang Y (2000) Studies on ecological benefits of planting and breeding model in rice fields. Acta Ecol Sin 20:311–316 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yu SM, Ouyang YN, Zhang QY, Peng G, Xu DH, Jin WY (2005) Effects of rice-duck farming system on Oryza sativa growth and its yield. Chin J Appl Ecol 1252-1256(In Chinese):16Google Scholar
- Yuan WL, Cao CG, Wang JP, Zhan M, Li CF, Xie NN (2008) Nitrous oxide emission from rice-duck complex ecosystem and the evaluation of its economic significance. Acta Ecol Sin 28(7):3060–3066 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang JE, Quan GM, Zhao B, Liang LM, Qin Z (2016a) Rice-duck co-culture in China and its ecological relationships and functions. In: Luo SM, Gliessman SR (eds) Agroecology in China: Science, Practice, and Sustainable Management. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 111–138Google Scholar