Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 23, pp 22598–22605 | Cite as

Combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid to the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

  • Yanmei Liu
  • Hui Zhang
  • Fengmei He
  • Xuesheng Li
  • Huihua Tan
  • Dongqiang Zeng
Research Article


Insecticides with different modes of action may act in combination, in ways such as drifting, spray equipment residual, or utilizing concurrently in mulberry orchards or nearby agricultural fields. Silkworms may suffer from a diverse impact on the survival. In this study, the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid and their combinations to the second instar of silkworms (Bombyx mori (L.)(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)) were evaluated after 48 and 72 h treatment by the leaf-dipping method and the combination index (CI)-isobologram equation. After 48 h treatment, results indicated that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid < chlorantraniliprole < lambda-cyhalothrin, and that (2) synergism was predominated in most combinations excepted for the lambda-cyhalothrin + imidacloprid combination which displayed an additive effect at fa value 0.5. Then, after 72 h treatment, results exhibited that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid < lambda-cyhalothrin < chlorantraniliprole, and that (2) only the chlorantraniliprole + imidacloprid mixture yielded antagonism at fa value 0.5; the other combinations performed an additive effect at least. Consequently, combined toxicity of mixtures may pose a worse effect on silkworm than single toxicity of insecticides. Therefore, we suggest that insecticide mixtures should be added into ecotoxicological risk assessment.


Combined toxicity Acute toxicity Chlorantraniliprole Lambda-cyhalothrin Imidacloprid 


Funding information

This study received financial support from the Cultivation Base of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment and Agro-Product Safety (2016,133).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cultivation Base of Guangxi Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment and Agro- Product Safety, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Plant Science Education, College of AgricultureGuangxi UniversityNanningChina

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