Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 23, pp 23294–23306 | Cite as

Effect of alumina nano additives into biodiesel-diesel blends on the combustion performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation

  • Praveen AnchupoguEmail author
  • Lakshmi Narayana Rao
  • Balakrishna Banavathu
Research Article


In the present study, the combined effect of alumina nanoparticles into the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blend and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine was investigated. The alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles with the mass fraction of 40 ppm were dispersed into the C. inophyllum biodiesel blend (20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel (CIB20)) by the ultrasonication process. Further, the exhaust gas recirculation was adopted to control the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder diesel engine with the diesel, CIB20, 20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 40 ppm Al2O3 nanoparticles (CIB20ANP40), CIB20 + 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR fuel samples at different load conditions. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of CIB20ANP40 fuel increased by 5.04 and 7.71% compared to the CIB20 and CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR fuels, respectively. The addition of alumina nanoparticles to the CIB20 fuel, CO, and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were was reduced compared to the CIB20 fuel. The smoke opacity was decreased with the addition of alumina nanoparticles to the CIB20 fuel by 7.3% compared to the CIB20 fuel. The NOx emissions for the CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR fuel was decreased by 36.84, 31.53, and 17.67% compared to the CIB20, CIB20ANP40, and CIB20 + 20% EGR fuel samples at full load condition.


Alumina nanoparticles Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blend Emission Exhaust gas recirculation Ignition delay Performance 



American Society for Testing and Materials


Compression ignition


Direct injection


Crank angle


Before top dead center


Aluminum oxide


20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel


20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 40 ppm Al2O3 nanoparticles

CIB20 + 20% EGR

20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 20% EGR

CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR

20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 40 ppm Al2O3 nanoparticles + 20%EGR


Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide


Scanning electron microscopy


X-ray diffractometer


Energy dispersive spectrum


Fourier transform infrared


Parts per million


Exhaust gas recirculation


Brake thermal efficiency


Brake-specific fuel consumption


Exhaust gas temperature


Carbon monoxide




Oxides of nitrogen



The authors acknowledge the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIIT, Basara, TS, India for providing the SEM, XRD, and EDS reports of Al2O3 nanoparticles.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBapatla Engineering CollegeBapatlaIndia
  2. 2.Principal & Professor of Mechanical EngineeringJyothishmathi Institute of Technology & Science (JITS)KarimnagarIndia
  3. 3.Professor of Mechanical EngineeringJNTUKKakinadaIndia

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