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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 23, pp 23294–23306 | Cite as

Effect of alumina nano additives into biodiesel-diesel blends on the combustion performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation

  • Praveen Anchupogu
  • Lakshmi Narayana Rao
  • Balakrishna Banavathu
Research Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

In the present study, the combined effect of alumina nanoparticles into the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blend and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine was investigated. The alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles with the mass fraction of 40 ppm were dispersed into the C. inophyllum biodiesel blend (20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel (CIB20)) by the ultrasonication process. Further, the exhaust gas recirculation was adopted to control the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder diesel engine with the diesel, CIB20, 20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 40 ppm Al2O3 nanoparticles (CIB20ANP40), CIB20 + 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR fuel samples at different load conditions. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of CIB20ANP40 fuel increased by 5.04 and 7.71% compared to the CIB20 and CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR fuels, respectively. The addition of alumina nanoparticles to the CIB20 fuel, CO, and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were was reduced compared to the CIB20 fuel. The smoke opacity was decreased with the addition of alumina nanoparticles to the CIB20 fuel by 7.3% compared to the CIB20 fuel. The NOx emissions for the CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR fuel was decreased by 36.84, 31.53, and 17.67% compared to the CIB20, CIB20ANP40, and CIB20 + 20% EGR fuel samples at full load condition.

Keywords

Alumina nanoparticles Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blend Emission Exhaust gas recirculation Ignition delay Performance 

Abbreviations

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

CI

Compression ignition

DI

Direct injection

CA

Crank angle

bTDC

Before top dead center

Al2O3

Aluminum oxide

CIB20

20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel

CIB20ANP40

20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 40 ppm Al2O3 nanoparticles

CIB20 + 20% EGR

20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 20% EGR

CIB20ANP40 + 20% EGR

20% of C. inophyllum biodiesel + 80% of diesel + 40 ppm Al2O3 nanoparticles + 20%EGR

CTAB

Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

XRD

X-ray diffractometer

EDS

Energy dispersive spectrum

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared

ppm

Parts per million

EGR

Exhaust gas recirculation

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

BSFC

Brake-specific fuel consumption

EGT

Exhaust gas temperature

CO

Carbon monoxide

HC

Hydrocarbon

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIIT, Basara, TS, India for providing the SEM, XRD, and EDS reports of Al2O3 nanoparticles.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBapatla Engineering CollegeBapatlaIndia
  2. 2.Principal & Professor of Mechanical EngineeringJyothishmathi Institute of Technology & Science (JITS)KarimnagarIndia
  3. 3.Professor of Mechanical EngineeringJNTUKKakinadaIndia

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