Ameliorative effect of ginseng extract on phthalate and bisphenol A reprotoxicity during pregnancy in rats
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Phthalates (such as DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used chemicals in plastics manufacturing and exert public health concerns as endocrine disrupters. This study was designed to investigate the deleterious effect of DEHP and BPA on endocrine profile of pregnant female rats and the combined treatment with ginseng extract (Panax ginseng). Seventy-two pregnant rats were divided into six groups (control, ginseng, DEHP, BPA, Gin + DEHP, and Gin + BPA), 12 females per each group. The drugs were supplemented from pregnancy day 0 until day 20. Determination of serum sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol) were determined on days 4, 10, and 20 of pregnancy. mRNA transcripts of STAR, HSD17B3, CYP17, AKT1, and PTEN were relatively quantified against ACTB in the ovary and placenta of days 10 and 20 pregnant females by relative quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (RQ-PCR). DEHP and BPA significantly decreased the endocrine profile of testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol of days 10 and 20 of pregnant females. Combined administration of these chemicals along with ginseng extracts has returned the hormones to normal levels when compared with the control group. The ovarian and placental CYP17 and HSD17B3 mRNA transcripts showed variable expression pattern in both tissues and they were significantly affected by DEHP and BPA administration, concomitantly correlating to STAR, AKT1, PTEN, progesterone, and testosterone levels on pregnancy days 10 and 20. The results confirm the reprotoxicity of DEHP and BPA as endocrine disruptors and indicate that ginseng could be used to alleviate the toxic effects of these chemicals.
KeywordsBisphenol A Phthalates DEHP Pregnancy Ginseng Rats
Alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase
4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A
Cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate or bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3
Phosphatase and tensin homolog
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
The authors extended their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through the research group project (# RG-1438-018).
All authors shared in the design and implementation of this study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through the research group project # RG-1438-018.
Compliance with ethical standards
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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