Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 21, pp 21205–21215 | Cite as

Ameliorative effect of ginseng extract on phthalate and bisphenol A reprotoxicity during pregnancy in rats

  • Islam M. SaadeldinEmail author
  • Mohamed A. Hussein
  • Aida Hamid Suleiman
  • Mahmoud G. Abohassan
  • Mona M. Ahmed
  • Amr A. Moustafa
  • Abdullah F. Moumen
  • Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum
Research Article


Phthalates (such as DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used chemicals in plastics manufacturing and exert public health concerns as endocrine disrupters. This study was designed to investigate the deleterious effect of DEHP and BPA on endocrine profile of pregnant female rats and the combined treatment with ginseng extract (Panax ginseng). Seventy-two pregnant rats were divided into six groups (control, ginseng, DEHP, BPA, Gin + DEHP, and Gin + BPA), 12 females per each group. The drugs were supplemented from pregnancy day 0 until day 20. Determination of serum sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol) were determined on days 4, 10, and 20 of pregnancy. mRNA transcripts of STAR, HSD17B3, CYP17, AKT1, and PTEN were relatively quantified against ACTB in the ovary and placenta of days 10 and 20 pregnant females by relative quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (RQ-PCR). DEHP and BPA significantly decreased the endocrine profile of testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol of days 10 and 20 of pregnant females. Combined administration of these chemicals along with ginseng extracts has returned the hormones to normal levels when compared with the control group. The ovarian and placental CYP17 and HSD17B3 mRNA transcripts showed variable expression pattern in both tissues and they were significantly affected by DEHP and BPA administration, concomitantly correlating to STAR, AKT1, PTEN, progesterone, and testosterone levels on pregnancy days 10 and 20. The results confirm the reprotoxicity of DEHP and BPA as endocrine disruptors and indicate that ginseng could be used to alleviate the toxic effects of these chemicals.


Bisphenol A Phthalates DEHP Pregnancy Ginseng Rats 



Alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase


4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A


Cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase


Bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate or bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate




17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3


Phosphatase and tensin homolog


Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein



The authors extended their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through the research group project (# RG-1438-018).

Authors’ contributions

All authors shared in the design and implementation of this study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through the research group project # RG-1438-018.

Compliance with ethical standards

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2299_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Islam M. Saadeldin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohamed A. Hussein
    • 3
  • Aida Hamid Suleiman
    • 4
  • Mahmoud G. Abohassan
    • 4
  • Mona M. Ahmed
    • 5
  • Amr A. Moustafa
    • 3
  • Abdullah F. Moumen
    • 1
  • Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversitySharkiaEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversitySharkiaEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  5. 5.Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversitySharkiaEgypt
  6. 6.Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversitySharkiaEgypt

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