Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 22, pp 21901–21914 | Cite as

Ternary cross-coupled nanohybrid for high-efficiency 1H-benzo[d]imidazole chemisorption

  • Tran Dinh Minh
  • Byeong-Kyu LeeEmail author
Research Article


1H-Benzo[d]imidazole (BMA) has been considered as an emerging pharmaceutical organic contaminant, leading to the increasing BMA detection in wastewaters and need to be removed from ecosystem. This study investigated a highly synergistic BMA chemisorption using a novel ternary cross-coupled nanohybrid [γ-APTES]-Fe3O4@PAN@rGO. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were in situ core-shell co-precipitated with polyacrylonitrile polymer (PAN). Then, the prepared Fe3O4@PAN was decorated on hexagonal arrays of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) inside the framework of γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane ([γ-APTES]). The final nanohybrid [γ-APTES]-Fe3O4@PAN@rGO produced adjacent inter-fringe distances of 0.2–0.4 nm corresponded well to (111), (220), and (311) parallel sub-lattices with two oblique intersections at 90° right angle and 60° triangle. The BMA adsorption was favorable in neutral pH 7, aroused temperature (50 °C), and controlled by endothermic process. The identified maximum adsorption capacity of 221.73 mg g−1 was 30% higher than the reported adsorbents. The adsorption mechanisms include ion exchange, hydrogen bond, dipole-dipole force, π-conjugation, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interaction.

Graphical abstract

The synthetic route of novel nanohybrid [γ-APTES]-Fe3O4@PAN@rGO was investigated. After BMA adsorption, the adsorbent surface was entirely changed, thus an efficiently facile magnetic separation within 8s. [γ-APTES]-Fe3O4@PAN@rGO formed different oblique intersections of 60° and 90° sub-lattices


Emerging pharmaceutical organic contaminant (EPOCs) Cross-coupled Sub-lattices Fe3O4@PAN alloy Synergistic removal 



We would like to thank The Chemical Accident Prevention Technology Development Project and The Korea Environment Industry and Technology Institute, Korea Ministry of Environment, (ID Grant 2016001960002).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflicts to declare.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2297_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2929 kb)
11356_2018_2297_MOESM2_ESM.mp4 (2 mb)
Video 1 (MP4 2007 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanSouth Korea

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