Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 20, pp 19767–19778 | Cite as

Evolution of human health risk based on EPA modeling for adults and children and pollution level of potentially toxic metals in Rafsanjan road dust: a case study in a semi-arid region, Iran

  • Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan
  • Mohammed Baalousha
  • Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan
Research Article

Abstract

Humans can be directly exposed to potentially toxic metals in the urban environment via inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact of dust particles. This paper focuses on human health risk assessment of urban dust contaminated with potentially toxic metals. The levels, sources, and human health risks of nine potentially toxic metals (i.e., As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, and Zn) in 200 road dust samples from Rafsanjan area were investigated. Pollution level was assessed using the pollution index (PI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), and the health risk assessment was performed following the methodology described by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Co, and Mn in road dust were 105.3 ± 5.7, 791.4 ± 29.8, 123.1 ± 9.7, 28.4 ± 3.3, 3.1 ± 0.6, 18.4 ± 1.6, 252.6 ± 8.3, 16.5 ± 1.4, and 525.9 ± 21.0 mg kg−1, respectively. Thus, the concentrations of potentially toxic metals in road dust were higher than their corresponding natural background values, indicating that all studied potentially toxic metals were impacted by anthropogenic activities. The results of the current study are comparable to other studies conducted on road dust in other cities worldwide. Both of Igeo and PI decreased following order Cu > Mn > Pb > As > Zn > Cd > Ni > Cr > Co. Health risk assessment indicated that both of children and adults could be exposed to a potential increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime from exposure to arsenic through ingestion of the dust samples. However, Pb ingestion can increase cancer risk in children.

Keywords

Human health Cancer risk Noncarcinogenic risk Rafsanjan Road dust 

Abbreviations

As

arsenic

Cd

cadmium

Cu

copper

Cr

chromium

Ni

nickel

Pb

lead

Co

cobalt

Mn

manganese

Zn

zinc

PI

pollution index

Igeo

geoaccumulation index

Cdeg

contamination degree

US EPA

US Environmental Protection Agency

ICP-MS

inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

HQ

hazard quotient

CR

carcinogenic risk

CRT

total cancer risk

HRA

health risk assessment

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

WHO

World Health Organization

ADD

average daily dose

GIS

geography information system

IT

industrial town

CF

ceramic factory

SCC

Sarcheshmeh copper complex

RC

Rafsanjan city

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. Mohammad Tavakoli, medical physiologist and epidemiologist in Rafsanjan Medical University, and additionally Amin heydariyan and Moein Hassani, as master students, for their sampling and lab work. Authors also notice that this research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors also express their thanks in advance to the reviewers for their constructive comments that helped in improving the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ali MU, Liu G, Yousaf B, Abbas Q, Ullah H, Munir MAM, Fu B (2017) Pollution characteristics and human health risks of potentially (eco) toxic elements (PTEs) in road dust from metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Chemosphere 181:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aminiyan MM, Baalousha M, Mousavi R, Aminiyan FM, Hosseini H, Heydariyan A (2017) The ecological risk, source identification, and pollution assessment of heavy metals in road dust: a case study in Rafsanjan, SE Iran. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8539-y
  3. Baalousha M et al (2016) Outdoor urban nanomaterials: the emergence of a new, integrated, and critical field of study. Sci Total Environ 557:740–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beveridge R, Pintos J, Parent MÉ, Asselin J, Siemiatycki J (2010) Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case–control studies in Montreal. Am J Ind Med 53:476–485Google Scholar
  5. Caffo M, Caruso G, La Fata G, Barresi V, Visalli M, Venza M, Venza I (2014) Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors. Curr Genomics 15:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caravanos J, Carrelli J, Dowling R, Pavilonis B, Ericson B, Fuller R (2016) Burden of disease resulting from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay. Environ Health 15:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charlesworth S, De Miguel E, Ordóñez A (2011) A review of the distribution of particulate trace elements in urban terrestrial environments and its application to considerations of risk. Environ Geochem Health 33:103–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Souza ES, Texeira RA, da Costa HSC, Oliveira FJ, Melo LCA, Faial KCF, Fernandes AR (2017) Assessment of risk to human health from simultaneous exposure to multiple contaminants in an artisanal gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil. Sci Total Environ 576:683–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dehghani S, Moore F, Keshavarzi B, Hale BA (2017) Health risk implications of potentially toxic metals in street dust and surface soil of Tehran, Iran. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 136:92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunea D, Iordache S, Liu H-Y, Bøhler T, Pohoata A, Radulescu C (2016) Quantifying the impact of PM2.5 and associated heavy metals on respiratory health of children near metallurgical facilities. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:15395–15406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferreira-Baptista L, De Miguel E (2005) Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: a tropical urban environment. Atmos Environ 39:4501–4512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gong M, Wu L, Bi XY, Ren LM, Wang L, Ma ZD, Bao ZY, Li ZG (2010) Assessing heavy-metal contamination and sources by GIS-based approach and multivariate analysis of urban–rural topsoils in Wuhan, Central China. Environ Geochem Health 32:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goudie AS (2014) Desert dust and human health disorders. Environ Int 63:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hosseini M, Naghan PA, Karimi S, SeyedAlinaghi S, Bahadori M, Khodadad K, Mohammadi F, Keynama K, Masjedi MR (2009) Environmental risk factors for lung cancer in Iran: a case–control study. Int J Epidemiol 38:989–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hu X, Zhang Y, Luo J, Wang T, Lian H, Ding Z (2011) Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic, mercury and other metals in urban street dusts from a mega-city, Nanjing, China. Environ Pollut 159:1215–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamunda C, Mathuthu M, Madhuku M (2016) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils from Witwatersrand gold mining basin, South Africa. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lavigne É, Bélair MA, Do MT, Stieb DM, Hystad P, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Crouse DL, Crighton E, Chen H, Brook JR, Burnett RT, Weichenthal S, Villeneuve PJ, To T, Cakmak S, Johnson M, Yasseen AS III, Johnson KC, Ofner M, Xie L, Walker M (2017) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Environ Int 100:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Loska K, Wiechuła D, Korus I (2004) Metal contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environ Int 30:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Men C, Liu R, Xu F, Wang Q, Guo L, Shen Z (2018) Pollution characteristics, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals in road dust in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ 612:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moghtaderi T, Mahmoudi S, Shakeri A, Masihabadi MH (2018) Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment in soils of an industrial area, Bandar Abbas–South Central Iran. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2017.1405723
  22. Mousavi SM, Montazeri A, Mohagheghi MA, Jarrahi AM, Harirchi I, Najafi M, Ebrahimi M (2007) Breast cancer in Iran: an epidemiological review. Breast J 13:383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mousavi SM, Pourfeizi A, Dastgiri S (2010) Childhood cancer in Iran. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 32:376–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Muller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geo J 23:108–118Google Scholar
  25. Nasab Abdollahi M (2013) Cancer in center of Iranian pistachio production, Rafsanjan city (in persian). Alumni portal, Vali-e-Asr Rafsanjan University http://mahdiziaaddini.faculty.vru.ac.ir/?part=news&inc=news&id=32 Accessed 20 Oct 2016
  26. Pedeli X, Hoek G, Katsouyanni K (2011) Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies. Environ Health 10:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Qing X, Yutong Z, Shenggao L (2015) Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 120:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Radmard AR (2010) Five common cancers in Iran. Arch Iran Med 13:143Google Scholar
  29. Rasheed H, Slack R, Kay P, Gong YY (2017) Refinement of arsenic attributable health risks in rural Pakistan using population specific dietary intake values. Environ Int 99:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rastegari Mehr M, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Sharifi R, Lahijanzadeh A, Kermani M (2017) Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran. J Afr Earth Sci 132:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roetting TS, Mercado M, García M, Quintanilla J (2014) Environmental distribution and health impacts of As and Pb in crops and soils near Vinto smelter, Oruro, Bolivia. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11:935–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sá I, Semedo M, Cunha ME (2016) Kidney cancer. Heavy metals as a risk factor. Porto Biomed J 1:25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saeedi M, Li LY, Salmanzadeh M (2012) Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran. J Hazard Mater 227:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. USDOE (2011) The Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS). US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO), ArgonneGoogle Scholar
  35. USEPA (2001) Risk assessment guidance for Superfund: volume III. Part A: process for conducting probabilistic risk assessment. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Emergency and Remedial Response Washington^ eDC DCGoogle Scholar
  36. USEPA (2009) Risk assessment guidance for Superfund—volume I: human health evaluation manual (part F, supplemental guidance for inhalation risk assessment) EPA 540-R-070-002Google Scholar
  37. USEPA (2011) Exposure factors handbook 2011 edition (final). Office of Research and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Valko M, Rhodes C, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M (2006) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 160:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vazirinejad R, Khalili P, Rezaeian M, Jamalizadeh A, Puorkarami A (2015) The impact of exposure to pesticides on the risk of gastrointestinal cancer among pistachio farmers; a case-control study. J Occup Health Epidemiol 4:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vella V, Malaguarnera R, Lappano R, Maggiolini M, Belfiore A (2016) Recent views of heavy metals as possible risk factors and potential preventive and therapeutic agents in prostate cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol 457:57–72Google Scholar
  41. Wang L, Lu X, Ren C, Li X, Chen C (2014) Contamination assessment and health risk of heavy metals in dust from Changqing industrial park of Baoji, NW China. Environ Earth Sci 71:2095–2104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wei B, Yang L (2010) A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J 94:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei B, Jiang F, Li X, Mu S (2010) Contamination levels assessment of potential toxic metals in road dust deposited in different types of urban environment. Environ Earth Sci 61:1187–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wei X, Gao B, Wang P, Zhou H, Lu J (2015) Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 112:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. WHO (2016) Agents classified by the IARC monographs World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification Last Accessed
  46. Wu J, Song J, Li W, Zheng M (2016) The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:1428–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Xu H, Guinot B, Cao J, Li Y, Niu X, Ho KF, Shen Z, Liu S, Zhang T, Lei Y, Zhang Q, Sun J, Gao J (2018) Source, health risk and composition impact of outdoor very fine particles (VFPs) to school indoor environment in Xi’an, Northwestern China. Sci Total Environ 612:238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yaghoubi S, Barlow J, Kass P (2007) Breast cancer and metals: a literature review (Ph.D. thesis). University of California: Davis. http://www.zerobreastcancer.org/research/metals_bc.pdf Accssed 29 Jun 2017
  49. Zhang D, Lee D-J, Pan X (2014) Potentially harmful metals and metalloids in urban street dusts of Urumqi City: comparison with Taipei City. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:2447–2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhao Q et al (2014) Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China. Sci Total Environ 470:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, Liang Z (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Sci Total Environ 408:726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Agriculture, Soil Science DepartmentBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Civil Engineering Department, College of EngineeringVali-e-Asr Rafsanjan UniversityRafsanjanIran

Personalised recommendations