Tracking metal ions with polypyrrole thin films adhesively bonded to diazonium-modified flexible ITO electrodes
- 65 Downloads
Adhesively bonded polypyrrole thin films doped with benzene sulfonic acid (BSA) were electrodeposited on aminobenzenediazonium-modified flexible ITO electrodes and further employed for the detection of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+ metal ions in aqueous medium. The aminophenyl (AP) adhesive layer was grafted to ITO by electroreduction of the in situ generated parent diazonium compound. Polypyrrole (PPy) thin films exhibited remarkable adhesion to aminophenyl (ITO-AP). The strongly adherent polypyrrole films exhibited excellent electroactivity in the doped state with BSA which itself served to chelate the metal ions in aqueous medium. The surface of the resulting, modified flexible electrode was characterized by XPS, SEM, and electrochemical methods. The ITO-AP-PPy electrodes were then used for the simultaneous detection of Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The detection limits were 11.1, 8.95, and 0.99 nM for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+, respectively. In addition, the modified electrodes displayed a good reproducibility, making them suitable for the determination of heavy metals in real wastewater samples.
KeywordsFlexible ITO Diazonium salts Polypyrrole Electropolymerization Heavy metal ions Electroanalysis
ML gratefully thanks the Cooperation and Cultural Action Service of the French Embassy in Senegal for a PhD grant.
- Adarakattia PS, Foster CW, Banks CE, Arun Kumar NS, Malingappa P (2017) Calixarene bulk modified screen-printed electrodes (SPCCEs) as a one-shot disposable sensor for the simultaneous detection of lead(II),copper(II) and mercury(II) ions: application to environmental samples. Sensors Actuators A 267:517–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bagheri H, Afkhami A, Saber-Tehrani M, Khoshsafar H (2012) Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite of Schiff base/silica/magnetite as a preconcentration phase for the trace determination of heavy metal ions in water, food and biological samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 97:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Buica G-O, Ungureanu E-M, Bucher C, Moutet J-C, Saint-Aman E (2009) Poly(pyrrole-EDTA like) modified electrodes for mercury ions electroanalysis. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 11:1152–1159Google Scholar
- Chen L, Li Z, Meng Y, Zhang P, Su Z, Liu Y, Huang Y, Zhou Y, Xie Q, Yao S (2014) Sensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions at Bi/Nafion/overoxidized 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate-tethered polypyrrole/glassy carbon electrode. Sensors Actuators B 191:94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NIST X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy database, NIST Standard Reference Database 20, version 4.1. Data compiled and evaluated by Naumkin AV, Kraut-Vass A, Gaarenstroom SW, Powell CJ, https://srdata.nist.gov/xps/Default.aspx. (Last accessed 9 November 2017)
- Zhao D, Guo X, Wang T, Alvarez N, Vesselin NS, Heineman WR (2014) Simultaneous detection of heavy metals by anodic stripping voltammetry using carbon nanotube thread. Electroanalysis 26:488 496Google Scholar