Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 20, pp 19510–19517 | Cite as

Dual protective effect of ginger and rosemary extracts against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  • Amina E. Essawy
  • Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab
  • Ismail A. Sadek
  • Omnia M. Khamis
Research Article


The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of ginger (GE) and rosemary (RE), both individually and in combination, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in adult male rats. CCl4 induced significant increase in liver enzymes, bilirubin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol while total protein, albumin, and globulin were significantly decreased. Also, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and oxidative stress markers were found to be elevated with a concomitant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissue. Supplementation with extracts of ginger or rosemary effectively relieved most of the CCl4-induced alterations when administered singly. The joint therapy of the two extracts was more effective. The histological investigation strongly confirmed the highly protective effect of the two plant extracts in the hepatocytes. These findings suggest that rosemary and ginger extracts are effective in improving both the function and structure of the hepatocytes through their potent antioxidant effect and point out to the possibility of using a combination of both as an adjunct therapy in liver diseases.


Carbon tetrachloride Ginger Rosemary Hepatotoxicity 


Compliance with ethical standards

Experimental design was conducted in accord with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Menoufia University, Egypt, Approval No: MNSP155.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amina E. Essawy
    • 1
  • Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ismail A. Sadek
    • 1
  • Omnia M. Khamis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of AlexandriaAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences/Biology Unit, Deanship of Preparatory Year and Supporting StudiesImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamSaudi Arabia

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