Concentration characteristics, source apportionment, and oxidative damage of PM2.5-bound PAHs in petrochemical region in Xinjiang, NW China
- 151 Downloads
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of considerable concern due to their potential as human carcinogens. Thus, determining the characteristics, potential source, and examining the oxidative capacity of PAHs to protect human health is essential. This study investigated the PM2.5-bound PAHs at Dushanzi, a large petrochemical region in Xinjiang as well as northwest China. A total of 33 PM2.5 samples with 13 PAHs, together with molecular tracers (levoglucosan, and element carbon), were analyzed during the non-heating and heating periods. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations were 70.22 ± 22.30 and 95.47 ± 61.73 μg/m3, while that of total PAHs were 4.07 ± 2.03 and 60.33 ± 30.80 ng/m3 in sampling period, respectively. The fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene were the most abundant (top five) PAHs, accounting for 71.74 and 72.80% of total PAH mass during non-heating and heating periods. The BaP equivalent (BaPeq) concentration exceeded 1 ng/m3 as recommended by National Ambient Air Quality Standards during heating period. The diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization indicated that oil industry, biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emissions are the primary sources. The coal combustion remarkably increased during heating period. The plasmid scission assay (PSA) results showed that higher DNA damage rate was observed during heating period. PAHs in PM2.5 such as Chr, BaP, and IcdP were found to have significantly positive correlations with the plasmid DNA damage rates. Additionally, the relationship among BaPeq and DNA damage rate suggested that synergistic reaction may modify the toxicity of PAHs.
KeywordsPM2.5 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Source apportion Oxidative capacity Plasmid scission assay
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 41465007) and the Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science (SKLOG-2016201624).
- Burczynski ME, Penning TM (2000) Genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ortho-quinones generated by aldo-keto reductases induce CYP1A1 via nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Cancer Res 60:908Google Scholar
- Huang R-J, Zhang Y, Bozzetti C, Ho K-F, Cao J-J, Han Y, Daellenbach KR, Slowik JG, Platt SM, Canonaco F, Zotter P, Wolf R, Pieber SM, Bruns EA, Crippa M, Ciarelli G, Piazzalunga A, Schwikowski M, Abbaszade G, Schnelle-Kreis J, Zimmermann R, An Z, Szidat S, Baltensperger U, Haddad IE, Prévôt ASH (2014) High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China. Nature 514(7521):218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li, Z., Sjodin, A., Porter, E.N., Jr, D.G.P., Needham, L.L., Lee, S., Russell, A.G., Mulholland, J.A. (2009) Characterization of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Atlanta. Atmos Environ 43, 1043–1050Google Scholar
- Liu D, Lin T, Syed JH, Cheng Z, Xu Y, Li K, Zhang G, Li J (2017a) Concentration, source identification, and exposure risk assessment of PM2.5-bound parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in atmosphere from typical Chinese cities. Sci Rep 7(10398)Google Scholar
- Liu, Y., Yan, C., Ding, X., Wang, X., Fu, Q., Zhao, Q., Zhang, Y., Duan, Y., Qiu, X., Zheng, M. (2017b) Sources and spatial distribution of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Shanghai, China. Sci Total Environ 584-585, 307–317Google Scholar
- Shao, L., Hou, C., Geng, C., Liu, J., Hu, Y., Wang, J., Jones, T., Zhao, C., Bérubé, K. (2016) The oxidative potential of PM 10 from coal, briquettes and wood charcoal burnt in an experimental domestic stove. Atmos Environ 127, 372–381Google Scholar
- S. Kermilla, Ying, H., Talip D., Long-yi, S., M. Mahmut (2014) A toxicological assessment of PM2.5 in Urumqi based on plasmid DNA assay. China Environ Sci 34, 786–792 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Taioli, E., Sram, R.J., Garte, S., Kalina, I., Popov, T.A., Farmer, P.B. (2007) Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Environ. Pollut. on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage (EXPAH project): description of the population under study. Mutat Res 620, 1–6Google Scholar
- Wang, F., Lin, T., Feng, J., Fu, H., Guo, Z. (2015b) Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 using positive matrix factorization modeling in Shanghai, China. Environ Sci Proc Impacts 17, 197–205Google Scholar
- Wang J, Cao J, Dong Z, Guinot B, Gao M, Huang R, Han Y, Huang Y, Ho SSH, Shen Z (2017a) Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi’an, China: the effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter. Environ Pollut 231:1330–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Hang Ho SS, Huang R, Gao M, Liu S, Zhao S, Cao J, Wang G, Shen Z, Han Y (2016) Characterization of parent and oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xi’an, China during heating period: an investigation of spatial distribution and transformation. Chemosphere 159:367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar