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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 23, pp 22629–22640 | Cite as

Concentration characteristics, source apportionment, and oxidative damage of PM2.5-bound PAHs in petrochemical region in Xinjiang, NW China

  • Yusan Turap
  • Dilinuer Talifu
  • Xinming Wang
  • Tuergong Aierken
  • Suwubinuer Rekefu
  • Hao Shen
  • Xiang Ding
  • Mailikezhati Maihemuti
  • Yalkunjan Tursun
  • Wei Liu
Research Article
  • 151 Downloads

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of considerable concern due to their potential as human carcinogens. Thus, determining the characteristics, potential source, and examining the oxidative capacity of PAHs to protect human health is essential. This study investigated the PM2.5-bound PAHs at Dushanzi, a large petrochemical region in Xinjiang as well as northwest China. A total of 33 PM2.5 samples with 13 PAHs, together with molecular tracers (levoglucosan, and element carbon), were analyzed during the non-heating and heating periods. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations were 70.22 ± 22.30 and 95.47 ± 61.73 μg/m3, while that of total PAHs were 4.07 ± 2.03 and 60.33 ± 30.80 ng/m3 in sampling period, respectively. The fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene were the most abundant (top five) PAHs, accounting for 71.74 and 72.80% of total PAH mass during non-heating and heating periods. The BaP equivalent (BaPeq) concentration exceeded 1 ng/m3 as recommended by National Ambient Air Quality Standards during heating period. The diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization indicated that oil industry, biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emissions are the primary sources. The coal combustion remarkably increased during heating period. The plasmid scission assay (PSA) results showed that higher DNA damage rate was observed during heating period. PAHs in PM2.5 such as Chr, BaP, and IcdP were found to have significantly positive correlations with the plasmid DNA damage rates. Additionally, the relationship among BaPeq and DNA damage rate suggested that synergistic reaction may modify the toxicity of PAHs.

Keywords

PM2.5 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Source apportion Oxidative capacity Plasmid scission assay 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 41465007) and the Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science (SKLOG-2016201624).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2082_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1140 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yusan Turap
    • 1
  • Dilinuer Talifu
    • 1
  • Xinming Wang
    • 2
  • Tuergong Aierken
    • 1
  • Suwubinuer Rekefu
    • 1
  • Hao Shen
    • 1
  • Xiang Ding
    • 2
  • Mailikezhati Maihemuti
    • 1
  • Yalkunjan Tursun
    • 1
  • Wei Liu
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Coal Clean Conversion & Chemical Engineering Process, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringXinjiang UniversityÜrümqiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Organic GeochemistryGuangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Environmental Monitoring StationDushanziChina

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