Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 20, pp 19628–19634 | Cite as

Identification of toxic substances in phenol-acetone wastewater on activated sludge and selective toxicity removal performance with ferrous pretreatment

  • Lulu Wang
  • Qianqian Lv
  • Mingdong An
  • Zhongyi Liu
  • Yudong Song
  • Zhou Yuexi 
  • Jie Li
  • Jixian Xu
Research Article
  • 91 Downloads

Abstract

We investigated the effects of toxic wastewater generated during the production of phenol-acetone on activated sludge and tested pretreatment methods to selectively remove the toxicity. We found that the microbial activity in the activated sludge was inhibited by the wastewater, in which cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) with a medium effective concentration (EC50) of 225 mg L−1 was the main toxic substance. We tested one pretreatment method with ferrous iron to selectively remove the CHP. The CHP decomposition process, which mainly produced acetophenone, was very quick. The CHP was selectively transformed into low-toxicity organics, and a maximum of 92% was removed when 1.08 mmol L−1 of ferrous iron was added, for a reaction time of 10 min, a pH of 5, and a temperature of 25 °C, and the resulting wastewater only slightly inhibited the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge. The acclimation of activated sludge was accelerated, and a COD removal rate of more than 85% was achieved within a week. Our results confirm that ferrous iron provides a cost-effective method to selectively remove toxins from wastewater.

Keywords

Activated sludge Toxic substance Phenol-acetone wastewater Pretreatment Cumene hydroperoxide Ferrous iron 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the China Special Science and Technology Project for the Treatment and Control of Water Pollution (2012ZX07201-005) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51308521).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. APHA, AWWA, WEF (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanco J, Torrades F, Varga MDL, García-Montaño J (2012) Fenton and biological-Fenton coupled processes for textile wastewater treatment and reuse. Desalination 286:394–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deng Y, Englehardt JD (2006) Treatment of landfill leachate by the Fenton process. Water Res 40:3683–3694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fordham JWL, Williams HL (2002) The cumene hydroperoxide-iron(II) reaction in the absence of oxygen. J Am Chem Soc 73:1634–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fortuin JP, Waterman HI (1953) Production of phenol from cumene. Chem Eng Sci 2:182–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamdi M (1991) Effects of agitation and pretreatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater. Bioresour Technol 36:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ISO (2007) International standard organization. Water quality-test for inhibition of oxygen consumption by activated sludge for carbonaceous and ammonium oxidation, 8192–2007Google Scholar
  8. Kang YW, Hwang KY (2000) Effects of reaction conditions on the oxidation efficiency in the Fenton process. Water Res 34:2786–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khoufi S, Feki F, Sayadi S (2007) Detoxification of olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation and sedimentation processes. J Hazard Mater 142:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kolthoff IM, Medalia AI (2002) The reaction between ferrous iron and peroxides. III. Reaction with cumene hydroperoxide, in aqueous solution. J Am Chem Soc 73:1733–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liebhafsky HA, Sharkey WH (1940) The determination of organic peroxides. J Am Chem Soc 62:190–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lodha B, Chaudhari S (2007) Optimization of Fenton-biological treatment scheme for the treatment of aqueous dye solutions. J Hazard Mater 148:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mario A, Esplugas S, Saum G (1997) How and why combine chemical biological processes for wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 35:321–327Google Scholar
  14. Reynolds WL, Kolthoff IM (2002) The reaction between aquo ferrous iron and cumene hydroperoxide. J Phys Chem 60:969–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Song G-Q, Xi H-B, Zhou Y-X, Fu L-Y, Xing X, Wu C-Y (2017) Influence of organic load rate (OLR) on the hydrolytic acidification of 2-butenal manufacture wastewater and analysis of bacterial community structure. Bioresour Technol 243:502–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Völker J, Vog T, Castronovo S, Wick A, Ternes TA, Joss A, Oehlmann J, Wagner M (2017) Extended anaerobic conditions in the biological wastewater treatment: higher reduction of toxicity compared to target organic micropollutants. Water Res 116:220–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wei J, Song Y-H, Meng X-G, Pic JS (2015) Combination of Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch membrane bioreactor for treatment of dry-spun acrylic fiber wastewater. Environ Earth Sci 73:4911–4921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yu L-N, Song Y-D, Zhou Y-X, Zhu S-Q, Zheng S-Z, Li S-M (2011) Treatment of acrylate wastewater by electrocatalytic reduction process. Environ Sci 32:2956–2960 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Zhang J, Wang S-G, Wang C, Hu H-Y (2012) Chemical identification and genotoxicity analysis of petrochemical industrial wastewater. Front Env Sci Eng 6:350–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lulu Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qianqian Lv
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mingdong An
    • 5
  • Zhongyi Liu
    • 5
  • Yudong Song
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhou Yuexi 
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jie Li
    • 1
  • Jixian Xu
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Environmental and Municipal EngineeringLanzhou Jiaotong UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Research Center of Water Pollution Control TechnologyChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.College of Urban ConstructionHebei University of EngineeringHandanChina
  5. 5.Dyestuff Factory of Jilin Petrochemical CompanyJilinChina

Personalised recommendations