Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The reactivity of Fe/Ni colloid stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Fe/Ni) toward chloroform

  • 212 Accesses

  • 1 Citations


The use of stabilizers can prevent the reactivity loss of nanoparticles due to aggregation. In this study, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was selected as the stabilizer to synthesize a highly stable CMC-stabilized Fe/Ni colloid (CMC-Fe/Ni) via pre-aggregation stabilization. The reactivity of CMC-Fe/Ni was evaluated via the reaction of chloroform (CF) degradation. The effect of background solution which composition was affected by the preparation of Fe/Ni (Fe/Ni precursors, NaBH4 dosage) and the addition of solute (common ions, sulfur compounds) on the reactivity of CMC-Fe/Ni was also investigated. Additionally, the dried CMC-Fe/Ni was used for characterization in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results indicated that CMC stabilization greatly improved the reactivity of Fe/Ni bimetal and CF (10 mg/L) could be completely degraded by CMC-Fe/Ni (0.1 g/L) within 45 min. The use of different Fe/Ni precursors resulting in the variations of background solution seemed to have no obvious influence on the reactivity of CMC-Fe/Ni, whereas the dosage of NaBH4 in background solution showed a negative correlation with the reactivity of CMC-Fe/Ni. Besides, the individual addition of external solutes into background solution all had an adverse effect on the reactivity of CMC-Fe/Ni, of which the poisoning effect of sulfides (Na2S, Na2S2O4) was significant than common ions and sulfite.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. Bezbaruah AN, Krajangpan S, Chisholm BJ, Khan E, Elorza JJ (2009) Entrapment of iron nanoparticles in calcium alginate beads for groundwater remediation application. J Hazard Mater 166(2–3):1339–1343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.054

  2. Bezbaruah AN, Kalita H, Almeelbi T, Capecchi CL, Jacob DL, Ugrinov AG, Payne SA (2014) Ca-alginate-entrapped nanoscale iron: arsenic treatability and mechanism studies. J Nanopart Res 16:2175–2185

  3. Bhattacharjee S, Basnet M, Tufenkji N, Ghoshal S (2016) Effects of rhamnolipid and carboxymethylcellulose coatings on reactivity of palladium-doped nanoscale zerovalent iron particles. Environ Sci Technol 50(4):1812–1820

  4. Bokare AD, Chikate RC, Rode CV, Paknikar KM (2007) Effect of surface chemistry of Fe–Ni nanoparticles on mechanistic pathways of azo dye degradation. Environ Sci Technol 41(21):7437–7443

  5. Cirtiu CM, Raychoudhury T, Ghoshal S, Moores A (2011) Systematic comparison of the size, surface characteristics and colloidal stability of zero valent iron nanoparticles pre-and post-grafted with common polymers. Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Asp 390(1–3):95–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.09.011

  6. Dalla Vecchia E, Coisson M, Appino C, Vinai F, Sethi R (2009) Magnetic characterization and interaction modeling of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated aquifers. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 9(5):3210–3218. https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2009.047

  7. Fan DM, Johnson GO, Tratnyek PG, Johnson RL (2016) Sulfidation of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) for improved selectivity during in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR). Environ Sci Technol 50(17):9558–9565

  8. Fang ZQ, Qiu XH, Chen JH, Qiu XQ (2011) Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: influencing factors, kinetics, and mechanism. J Hazard Mater 185(2–3):958–969. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.113

  9. Feng J, Lim TT (2005) Pathways and kinetics of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform reductions by nano-scale Fe and Fe/Ni particles: comparison with commercial micro-scale Fe and Zn. Chemosphere 59(9):1267–1277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.038

  10. Gao Y, Wang FF, Wu Y, Naidu R, Chen ZL (2016) Comparison of degradation mechanisms of microcystin-LR using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and bimetallic Fe/Ni and Fe/Pd nanoparticles. Chem Eng J 285:459–466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.09.078

  11. Garcia AN, Boparai HK, O’Carroll DM (2016) Enhanced dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane by coupled nano iron-dithionite treatment. Environ Sci Technol 50(10):5243–5251

  12. Grieger KD, Fjordbøge A, Hartmann NB, Eriksson E, Bjerg PL, Baun A (2010) Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off? J Contam Hydrol 118(3–4):165–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.07.011

  13. Han YL, Yan WL (2014) Bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles for groundwater decontamination: effect of groundwater constituents on surface deactivation. Water Res 66:149–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.08.001

  14. He F, Zhao DY (2007) Manipulating the size and dispersibility of zerovalent iron nanoparticles by use of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilizers. Environ Sci Technol 41(17):6216–6221

  15. He F, Zhao DY, Liu JC, Roberts CB (2007) Stabilization of Fe-Pd nanoparticles with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for enhanced transport and dechlorination of trichloroethylene in soil and groundwater. Ind Eng Chem Res 46(1):29–34

  16. Hildebrand H, Mackenzie K, Kopinke FD (2009) Pd/Fe3O4 nano-catalysts for selective dehalogenation in wastewater treatment processes—influence of water constituents. Appl Catal B 91(1–2):389–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.06.006

  17. Huang CC, Lo SL, Lien HL (2013) Synergistic effect of zero-valent copper nanoparticles on dichloromethane degradation by vitamin B12 under reducing condition. Chem Eng J 219:311–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.01.016

  18. Johnson TL, Fish W, Gorby YA, Tratnyek PG (1998) Degradation of carbon tetrachloride by iron metal: complexation effects on the oxide surface. J Contam Hydrol 29(4):379–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(97)00063-6

  19. Kim JH, Tratnyek PG, Chang YS (2008) Rapid dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins by bimetallic and nanosized zerovalent iron. Environ Sci Technol 42(11):4106–4112

  20. Li YM, Zhang Y, Li JF, Zheng XM (2011) Enhanced removal of pentachlorophenol by a novel composite: nanoscale zero valent iron immobilized on organobentonite. Environ Pollut 159(12):3744–3749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.07.016

  21. Lim TT, Zhu BW (2008) Effect of anions on the kinetics and reactivity of nanoscale Pd/Fe in trichlorobenzene dechlorination. Chemosphere 73(9):1471–1477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.050

  22. Lin CH, Shih YH, MacFarlane J (2015) Amphiphilic compounds enhance the dechlorination of pentachlorophenol with Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. Chem Eng J 262:59–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.09.038

  23. Liu YQ, Phenrat T, Lowry GV (2007) Effect of TCE concentration and dissolved groundwater solutes on NZVI-promoted TCE dechlorination and H2 evolution. Environ Sci Technol 41(22):7881–7887

  24. Liu WJ, Qian TT, Jiang H (2014) Bimetallic Fe nanoparticles: recent advances in synthesis and application in catalytic elimination of environmental pollutants. Chem Eng J 236:448–463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.10.062

  25. Liu ZT, Gu CG, Ye M, Bian YR, Cheng YW, Wang F, Yang XL, Song Y, Jiang X (2015) Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by attapulgite-supported Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles: influencing factors, kinetics and mechanism. J Hazard Mater 298:328–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.05.032

  26. Phenrat T, Saleh N, Sirk K, Kim HJ, Tilton RD, Lowry GV (2008) Stabilization of aqueous nanoscale zerovalent iron dispersion by anionic polyelectrolytes: adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte layer properties and their effect on aggregation and sedimentation. J Nanopart Res 10(5):795–814

  27. Sakulchaicharoen N, O’Carroll DM, Herrera JE (2010) Enhanced stability and dechlorination activity of pre-synthesis stabilized nanoscale FePd particles. J Contam Hydrol 118(3–4):117–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.09.004

  28. Sarathy V, Tratnyek PG, Nurmi JT, Baer DR, Amonette JE, Chun CL, Penn RL, Reardon EJ (2008) Aging of iron nanoparticles in aqueous solution: effects on structure and reactivity. J Phys Chem C 112:2286–2293

  29. Shih YH, Chen MY, Su YF (2011a) Pentachlorophenol reduction by Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: effects of copper, nikel, and ferric cations. Appl Catal B 105(1–2):24–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.03.024

  30. Shih YH, Hsu CY, Su YF (2011b) Reduction of hexachlorobenzene by nanoscale zero-valent iron: kinetics, pH effect, and mechanism. Sep Purif Technol 76(3):268–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2010.10.015

  31. Stefaniuk M, Oleszczuk P, Ok YS (2016) Review on nano zerovalent iron (nZVI): from synthesis to environmental applications. Chem Eng J 287:618–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.11.046

  32. Tee YH, Bachas L, Bhattacharyya D (2009) Degradation of trichlotoethylene by iron-based bimetallic nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 113(22):9454–9464

  33. Theron J, Walker JA, Cloete TE (2008) Nanotechnology and water treatment: applications and emerging opportunities. Crit Rev Microbiol 34(1):43–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408410701710442

  34. Tso CP, Shih YH (2017) The influence of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the reactivity of Fe NPs toward decabrominated diphenyl ether: the Ni doping, temperature, pH, and anion effects. J Hazard Mater 322(A:145–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.03.082

  35. Wang XY, Chen C, Chang Y, Liu HL (2009) Dechlorination of chlorinated methanes by Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. J Hazard Mater 161(2–3):815–823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.04.027

  36. Wang XY, Ning P, Liu HL, Ma J (2010) Dechlorination of chloroacetic acids by Pd/Fe nanoparticles: effect of drying method on metallic activity and the parameter optimization. Appl Catal B 94(1–2):55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.10.020

  37. Weng XL, Sun Q, Lin S, Chen ZL, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2014) Enhancement of catalytic degradation of amoxicillin in aqueous solution using clay supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles. Chemosphere 103:80–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.033

  38. Wu J, Yi YQ, Li YQ, Fang ZQ, Tsang EP (2016) Excellently reactive Ni/Fe bimetallic catalyst supported by biochar for the remediation of decabromodiphenyl contaminated soil: reactivity, mechanism, pathways and reducing secondary risks. J Hazard Mater 320:341–349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.08.049

  39. Xie Y, Cwiertny DM (2013) Chlorinated solvent transformation by palladized zerovalent iron: mechanistic insights from reductant loading studies and solvent kinetic isotope effects. Environ Sci Technol 47(14):7940–7948

  40. Yan WL, Lien HL, Koel BE, Zhang WX (2013) Iron nanoparticles for environmental clean-up: recent developments and future outlook. Environ Sci Processes Impacts 15:63–77

  41. Yan JC, Han L, Gao WG, Xue S, Chen MF (2015) Biochar supported nanoscale zerovalent iron composite used as persulfate activator for removing trichloroethylene. Bioresour Technol 175:269–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.103

  42. Yang JR, Sun HW (2015) Degradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane using carboxymethylcellulose-stabilized Fe/Ni nanoparticles. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:280

  43. Zhu BW, Lim TT (2007) Catalytic reduction of chlorobenzenes with Pd/Fe nanoparticles: reactive sites, catalyst stability, particle aging, and regeneration. Environ Sci Technol 41(21):7523–7529

  44. Zhuang Y, Ahn S, Seyfferth AL, Masue-Slowey Y, Fendorf S, Luthy RG (2011) Dehalogenation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyl by bimetallic, impregnated, and nanoscale zerovalent iron. Environ Sci Technol 45(11):4896–4903

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (50578151) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (2015ZX07406-005; 2016YFC0209205).

Author information

Correspondence to Qi Yang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Responsible Editor:Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jin, X., Li, Q. & Yang, Q. The reactivity of Fe/Ni colloid stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Fe/Ni) toward chloroform. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 21049–21057 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2030-2

Download citation


  • Bimetal
  • Fe/Ni
  • Stabilization
  • CF
  • Dechlorination