Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Preparation and Cr(VI) removal performance of corncob activated carbon

  • 275 Accesses

  • 5 Citations

Abstract

Corncob activated carbon (CCAC) was prepared by a H3PO4 activation method. The optimum conditions for the preparation of CCAC were determined by orthogonal experiments. The effects of pH, reaction time, CCAC dosage, and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) concentrations on Cr(VI) removal by CCAC were studied. Corn straw activated carbon (CSAC) was also prepared using the optimum preparation conditions determined for CCAC. The properties of samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the optimum preparation conditions for CCAC were as follows: a mass of corncob of 10 g; a mass ratio of corncob to H3PO4 of 1:2; a 5% H3BO3 content of 10 mL; an impregnation time of 45 min; a carbonization temperature of 500 °C. The optimum conditions for the removal of Cr(VI) were as follows: pH < 9; temperature, 308 K; rotation speed, 150 r min−1; reaction time, 60 min; CCAC dosage, 1 g L−1. The Cr(VI) removal rate was above 98%, and the maximum adsorption capacity of CCAC was 9.985 mg g−1. The concentration of residual Cr(VI) in water was less than 0.05 mg L−1. FTIR showed that the surfaces of the samples had more oxygen-containing functional groups, which promoted the adsorption. XRD showed that CCAC and CSAC had similar peaks and that these peaks promoted the adsorption of Cr(VI). BET indicated that the number of pores in the samples followed the order CCAC > CSAC > CAC. SEM showed that the CCAC surface had a more porous structure, which enhanced adsorption. EDS showed that the C contents of CCAC and CSAC were much higher than that of CAC. Cr(VI) adsorption on CCAC followed quasi-second-order kinetics and was in accordance with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm, with monolayer adsorption. The adsorption reaction was endothermic, where higher temperatures increased the degree of spontaneous reaction.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Al-Othman ZA, Ali R, Naushad M (2012) Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous medium by activated carbon prepared from peanut shell: adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 184:238–247

  2. Athanasekou C, Romanos GE, Papageorgiou SK, Manolis GK, Katsaros F, Falaras P (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of hexavalent chromium emerging contaminant via advanced titanium dioxide nanostructures. Chem Eng J

  3. Cronje KJ, Chetty K, Carsky M, Sahu JN, Meikap BC (2011) Optimization of chromium(VI) sorption potential using developed activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse with chemical activation by zinc chloride. Desalination 275:276–284

  4. Di Palma L, Gueye MT, Petrucci E (2015) Hexavalent chromium reduction in contaminated soil: a comparison between ferrous sulphate and nanoscale zero-valent iron. J Hazard Mater 281:70–76

  5. Gheju M, Balcu I (2011) Removal of chromium from Cr(VI) polluted wastewaters by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of resulted cations. J Hazard Mater 196:131–138

  6. Guo Y, Li Y, Zhu T, Meng Y (2015) Investigation of SO 2 and NO adsorption species on activated carbon and the mechanism of NO promotion effect on SO 2. Fuel 143:536–542

  7. Han Y, Cao X, Ouyang X, Sohi SP, Chen J (2016) Adsorption kinetics of magnetic biochar derived from peanut hull on removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution: effects of production conditions and particle size. Chemosphere 145:336–341

  8. Hokkanen S, Bhatnagar A, Repo E, Lou S, Sillanpää M (2016) Calcium hydroxyapatite microfibrillated cellulose composite as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Chem Eng J 283:445–452

  9. Hu S, Yao H, Wang K, Lu C, Wu Y (2015) Intensify removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous solution using Nano-zero valent Iron/granular activated carbon composite as Fenton-like catalyst. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:1–13

  10. Kumar A, Jena HM (2017) Adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by prepared high surface area activated carbon from fox nutshell by chemical activation with H 3 PO 4. J Environ Chem Eng 109:63–71

  11. Lee Y, Estevez R, Kim C (2017) Application of commercial coffee for the remediation of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water. Water Air Soil Pollut 228

  12. Li G, Gao H, Li Y, Yang H (2011): Regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon saturated with inorganic ions by cavitation united with ion exchange method. Journal of Environmental Sciences 23 Suppl, S146

  13. Mahmood-Ul-Hassan M, Suthor V, Rafique E, Yasin M (2015) Removal of Cd, Cr, and Pb from aqueous solution by unmodified and modified agricultural wastes. Environ Monit Assess 187:19

  14. Malwade K, Lataye D, Mhaisalkar V, Kurwadkar S, Ramirez D (2016) Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto activated carbon derived from Leucaena leucocephala waste sawdust: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics. Int J Environ Sci Technol 13:1–10

  15. Markiewicz B, Komorowicz I, Sajnog A, Belter M, Baralkiewicz D (2015) Chromium and its speciation in water samples by HPLC/ICP-MS—technique establishing metrological traceability: a review since 2000. Talanta 132:814–828

  16. Mohammadi SZ, Hamidian H, Moeinadini Z (2014) High surface area-activated carbon from Glycyrrhiza glabra residue by ZnCl2 activation for removal of Pb(II) and Ni(II) from water samples. J Ind Eng Chem 20:4112–4118

  17. Mohan D, Jr PC (2006) Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water. J Hazard Mater 137:762–811

  18. Mohan D, Singh KP, Singh VK (2006) Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth. J Hazard Mater 135:280–295

  19. Ozdemir I, Şahin M, Orhan R, Erdem M (2014) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from grape stalk by zinc chloride activation. Fuel Process Technol 125:200–206

  20. Pérez-Quintanilla D, Hierro ID, Fajardo M, Sierra I (2007) Cr(VI) adsorption on functionalized amorphous and mesoporous silica from aqueous and non-aqueous media. Mater Res Bull 42:1518–1530

  21. Rapti S, Pournara A, Sarma D, Papadas IT, Armatas GS, Tsipis AC, Lazarides T, Kanatzidis MG, Manos MJ (2016) Correction: selective capture of hexavalent chromium from an anion-exchange column of metal organic resin–alginic acid composite. Chem Sci 7:2438–2438

  22. Reddy PMK, Verma P, Subrahmanyam C (2015) Bio-waste derived adsorbent material for methylene blue adsorption. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 58:500–508

  23. Religa P, Kowalik-Klimczak A, Gierycz P (2013) Study on the behavior of nanofiltration membranes using for chromium(III) recovery from salt mixture solution. Desalination 315:115–123

  24. Richard FC, Bourg ACM (1991) Aqueous geochemistry of chromium: a review. Water Res 25:807–816

  25. Senol A (2004) Amine extraction of chromium(VI) from aqueous acidic solutions. Sep Purif Technol 36:63–75

  26. Shim J, Lim JM, Shea PJ, Oh BT (2014) Simultaneous removal of phenol, Cu and Cd from water with corn cob silica-alginate beads. J Hazard Mater 272:129–136

  27. Song M, Jin B, Xiao R, Yang L, Wu Y, Zhong Z, Huang Y (2013) The comparison of two activation techniques to prepare activated carbon from corn cob. Biomass Bioenergy 48:250–256

  28. Song W, Shi T, Yang D, Ye J, Zhou Y, Feng Y (2015) Pretreatment effects on the sorption of Cr(VI) onto surfactant-modified zeolite: mechanism analysis. J Environ Manag 162:96–101

  29. Tovargómez R, Riveraramírez DA, Hernándezmontoya V, Bonillapetriciolet A, Duránvalle CJ, Montesmorán MA (2012) Synergic adsorption in the simultaneous removal of acid blue 25 and heavy metals from water using a Ca(PO3)2-modified carbon. J Hazard Mater 199–200:290–300

  30. Vafakhah S, Bahrololoom ME, Bazarganlari R, Saeedikhani M (2014) Removal of copper ions from electroplating effluent solutions with native corn cob and corn stalk and chemically modified corn stalk. J Environ Chem Eng 2:356–361

  31. Yang J, Yu M, Chen W (2015) Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from longan seed: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics. J Ind Eng Chem 21:414–422

  32. Yao X, Deng S, Wu R, Hong S, Wang B, Huang J, Wang Y, Yu G (2016) Highly efficient removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater using aminated wheat straw. RSC Adv 6:8797–8805

  33. Yorgun S, Yıldız D (2015) Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from Paulownia wood by chemical activation with H 3 PO 4. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 53:122–131

  34. Zhuang L, Li Q, Chen J, Ma B, Chen S (2014) Carbothermal preparation of porous carbon-encapsulated iron composite for the removal of trace hexavalent chromium. Chem Eng J 253:24–33

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the reviewers for positive criticism to improve the quality of the manuscript.

Funding

This research was supported by Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (QA201519), and partially supported by National Scientific Fund and Project of Youth Fund (51408397).

Author information

Correspondence to Hongyan Li.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Guilherme L. Dotto

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOC 34 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, H., Gao, P., Cui, J. et al. Preparation and Cr(VI) removal performance of corncob activated carbon. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 20743–20755 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2026-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Corncob activated carbon
  • H3PO4 activation method
  • Cr(VI)
  • Dynamics
  • Thermodynamics