Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in floor and elevated surface house dust from Shanghai, China
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House dust is the main source of human exposure to flame retardants by ingestion. This study investigated the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust from 22 houses in Shanghai, China. House dust was separately collected from the floor and elevated furnishings surface (mostly between 0.5 and 2 m height) for comparison. The concentrations of ∑22 PBDEs ranged from 19.4 to 3280 ng/g (with a geometric mean of 203 ng/g) and from 55.1 to 792 ng/g (with a geometric mean of 166 ng/g) in floor dust (FD) and elevated surface dust (ESD), respectively. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for about 73.1% of total PBDE burdens. In terms of congener profiles, the comparison of FD and ESD revealed no significant differences except for the ratio of BDE-47/BDE-99. ESD samples displayed a ratio of BDE-47/BDE-99 very similar to commercial penta-BDE products DE-71 while the ratio in FD was exceptionally higher. Significant correlation was found between concentrations of commercial penta-BDE compositions in FD and ESD (p < 0.05). Except for some occasional values, PBDE levels in house dust exhibited temporal stability. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust ingestion was estimated. The highest daily intake of PBDEs was for toddlers by using 95th percentile concentrations of PBDEs via high dust ingestion in FD (23.07 ng/kg bw/day). About 20-fold difference in exposure estimates between toddlers and adults supports that toddlers are facing greater risk from indoor floor dust. Expectedly, this study highlighted the point that residents in Shanghai were exposed to low doses of PBDEs in house dust.
KeywordsPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) House dust Floor dust (FD) Elevated surface dust (ESD) Temporal variation Human exposure
We would like to thank all the volunteers who participated in providing dust samples. Financial support from the Swedish Research Council (No. 639-2013-6913) and Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21777124) are gratefully acknowledged.
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