UVΑ pre-irradiation to P25 titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhanced its toxicity towards freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus
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There has recently been an increase in the usage of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). P25 TiO2 NPs, a mixture of anatase and rutile phase in 3:1 ratio, are generally used for photocatalytic applications because both phases exhibit a synergistic effect on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 NPs. In the present study, increased toxicity of UVA-pre-irradiated P25 TiO2 NPs on freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was assessed under visible light and dark exposure conditions at actual low concentrations (0.3, 3 and 35 μM of Ti). Photocatalytic property of P25 TiO2 NPs caused disaggregation of UVA-pre-irradiated NPs, thus significantly decreasing the mean hydrodynamic diameter (MHD) (188.74 ± 0.54 nm) than that of non-irradiated NPs (232.26 ± 0.44). This decrease in diameter of UVA-pre-irradiated NPs may increase its biological activity towards algal samples. All concentrations of pre-irradiated NPs, under both light and dark conditions, showed a significantly lesser cell viability (p < 0.001) when compared with non-irradiated NPs. Increased production of ROS, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation supported the viability data. Higher exopolysaccharide production and more nuclear damage were observed for pre-irradiated NPs. NP uptake was also more for the pre-irradiated NPs on treated samples when compared with non-irradiated NPs on treated samples, which, in turn, established the higher toxic potential of UVA-pre-irradiated TiO2 NPs. This study improves our understanding of the toxic effects of UVA-pre-irradiated TiO2 NPs on freshwater algae, thereby emphasising the need for ecological risk assessments of metal oxide nanoparticles in a natural experimental medium.
KeywordsP25 TiO2 NPs Photocatalytic effects UVA pre-irradiation Mean hydrodynamic diameter Freshwater algae Exposure conditions ROS
We are thankful to VIT, Vellore, for the transmission electron microscopy facility.
BR, AM and SPK designed the experiments. Experiments were performed by BR and HC. BR, SPK, NC and AM worked on the data analysis. BR, SPK and AM wrote the paper. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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