Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India
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More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m−3.
KeywordsPM2.5 Personal exposure Household air pollution Ventilation Woman cook Biomass fuels
The fellowships provided in the form of Junior Research Fellow (JRF) and Senior Research Fellow (SRF) by the Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE), Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi to the first author is gratefully acknowledged. Supports from the studied households of the study area are also acknowledged heartily. We also thank the anonymous reviewers and the editor for their helpful comments and suggestions on this MS.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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