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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 14, pp 13731–13744 | Cite as

Assessment of n-pentanol/Calophyllum inophyllum/diesel blends on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a constant-speed variable compression ratio direct injection diesel engine

  • Purnachandran Ramakrishnan
  • Ramesh Kasimani
  • Mohamed Shameer Peer
  • Sakthivel Rajamohan
Research Article

Abstract

Alcohol is used as an additive for a long time with the petroleum-based fuels. In this study, the higher alcohol, n-pentanol, was used as an additive to Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) biodiesel/diesel blends at 10, 15, and 20% by volume. In all blends, the ratio of CI was maintained at 20% by volume. The engine characteristics of the pentanol fuel blends were compared with the diesel and CI20 (Calophyllum inophyllum 20% and diesel 80%) biodiesel blend. The nitrogen oxide (NO) emission of the pentanol fuel blends showed an increased value than CI20 and neat diesel fuel. The carbon dioxide (CO2) also increased with increase in pentanol addition with the fuel blends than CI20 fuel blend and diesel. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were decreased with increase in pentanol proportion in the blend than the CI20 fuel and diesel. The smoke emission was reduced and the combustion characteristics of the engine were also improved by using pentanol blended fuels. From this investigation, it is suggested that 20% pentanol addition with the biodiesel/diesel fuel is suitable for improved performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine without any engine modifications, whereas CO2 and NO emissions increased with addition of pentanol due to effective combustion.

Keywords

Pentanol Calophyllum inophyllum Performance Emission Combustion Compression ratio 

Nomenclature

CI

Calophyllum inophyllum

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

DI

Direct injection

mbpd

Million barrels per day

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

NO

Nitrogen oxide

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

HC

Hydrocarbon

HCHO

Formaldehyde

THC

Total hydrocarbon

VCR

Variable compression ratio

D100

Neat diesel fuel

CI20

Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 80%

P10C20

Pentanol 10% + Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 70%

P15C20

Pentanol 15% + Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 65%

P20C20

Pentanol 20% + Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 60%

CN

Cetane number

CV

Calorific value

LHV

Lower heating value

CRDI

Common rail direct injection

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

bmep

Brake mean effective pressure

HRR

Heat release rate

PC

Premixed combustion

CR

Compression ratio

CR16

Compression ratio 16:1

CR17

Compression ratio 17:1

CR18

Compression ratio 18:1

MDS

Modular diagnostic system

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research ScholarGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.DindigulIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringVV College of EngineeringTirunelveliIndia

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