Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 13, pp 13067–13078 | Cite as

Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China

  • Xiaowei Cong
Research Article


Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO2, and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p < 0.05). Negative association between waste gas emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p < 0.05). The results of the whole group were basically consistent with the results of the stratified analysis. The results from this retrospective population-based study suggest ambient air pollution from waste gas emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.


Air pollution Industrial waste gas Cancer Incidence Shanghai 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. I deeply appreciated Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau, Cancer Registries and Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Statistics for data collection, sorting, verification, and disclosure.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of Shantou University Medical College, China, and limited to analysis of existing data that involved no direct inter action with subjects and therefore met criteria for a waiver of informed consent (Smith et al. 2016).

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shantou University Medical College, Shantou UniversityShantouChina

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