Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 13, pp 13067–13078 | Cite as

Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China

  • Xiaowei Cong
Research Article

Abstract

Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO2, and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p < 0.05). Negative association between waste gas emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p < 0.05). The results of the whole group were basically consistent with the results of the stratified analysis. The results from this retrospective population-based study suggest ambient air pollution from waste gas emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

Keywords

Air pollution Industrial waste gas Cancer Incidence Shanghai 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. I deeply appreciated Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau, Cancer Registries and Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Statistics for data collection, sorting, verification, and disclosure.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of Shantou University Medical College, China, and limited to analysis of existing data that involved no direct inter action with subjects and therefore met criteria for a waiver of informed consent (Smith et al. 2016).

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Baily MN, Bosworth BP (2014) US manufacturing: understanding its past and its potential future. J Econ Perspect 28(1):3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Holguin F, Hong Y, Luepker RV, Mittleman MA, Peters A, Siscovick D, Smith SC, Whitsel L, Kaufman JD, on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism (2010) Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 121(21):2331–2378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carter BD, Abnet CC, Feskanich D, Freedman ND, Hartge P, Lewis CE, Ockene JK, Prentice RL, Speizer FE, Thun MJ, Jacobs EJ (2015) Smoking and mortality—beyond established causes. N Engl J Med 372(7):631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen W, Armstrong BK, Zheng R, Zhang S, Yu X, Clements M (2013) Cancer burden in China: a Bayesian approach. BMC Cancer 13:458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen W, Zheng R, Zhang S, Zhao P, Zeng H, Zou X, He J (2014) Annual report on status of cancer in China, 2010. Chin J Cancer Res 26(1):48–58Google Scholar
  6. Chen W, Zheng R, Zeng H, Zhang S, He J (2015) Annual report on status of cancer in China, 2011. Chin J Cancer Res 27(1):2–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen W, Zheng R, Baade PD, Zhang S, Zeng H, Bray F, Jemal A, Yu XQ, He J (2016) Cancer statistics in China, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin 66(2):115–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cong X, Xu X, Zhang Y, Wang Q, Xu L, Huo X (2017) Temperature drop and the risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24:22535–22546.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9914-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crouse DL, Goldberg MS, Ross NA, Chen H, Labrech F (2010) Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Montreal, Canada: a case-control study. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1578–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM (2010) Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 127(12):2893–2917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2015) Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 136(5):E359–E386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Filippini G, Farinotti M, Lovicu G, Maisonneuve P, Boyle P (1994) Mothers’ active and passive smoking during pregnancy and risk of brain tumours in children. Int J Cancer 57(6):769–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujii H, Managi S, Kaneko S (2013) Decomposition analysis of air pollution abatement in China: empirical study for ten industrial sectors from 1998 to 2009. J Clean Prod 59:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF (2017) The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer incidence: results from the AHSMOG-2 study. Environ Health Perspec 125(3):378–384Google Scholar
  15. Hu Y, Zhao Q, Rao J, Deng H, Yuan H, Xu B (2014) Longitudinal trends in prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival of patients from two Shanghai city districts: a retrospective population-based cohort study, 2000-2009. BMC Public Health 14(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang ZZ, Chen WQ, Chun-Xiao WU, Zheng RS, Chen JG, Cheng LP, Wang N, Zhang SW, Zhang Y (2012) The trends of female breast cancer incidence and mortality in Beijing, Shanghai, Linzhou and Qidong in China. Tumor 32:605–608Google Scholar
  17. Hystad P, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Crouse DL, Johnson K, Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group (2015) Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of developing breast cancer among women in eight Canadian provinces: a case-control study. Environ Int 74:240–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. IARC (2009) A review of human carcinogens. Part E: Personal habits and indoor combustions. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Hum 100E:1–598 http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100E/mono100E.pdf Google Scholar
  19. IARC (2012) Diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Hum 105:1–714 https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol105/mono105.pdf Google Scholar
  20. IARC (2013a) Diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Hum 105:1–714 https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol105/mono105.pdf Google Scholar
  21. IARC (2013b) Outdoor air pollution. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Hum 109:1–454 https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol109/mono109-F01.pdf Google Scholar
  22. de Jong K, Vonk JM, Zijlema WL, Stolk RP, van der Plaat et al (2016) Air pollution exposure is associated with restrictive ventilatory patterns. Eur Respir J 48(4):1221–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jorgensen JT, Johansen MS, Ravnskjaer L, Andersen KK, Brauner EV, Loft S et al (2016) Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumours: the Danish nurse cohort. Neurotoxicology 55:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lavigne E, Belair MA, Do MT, Stieb DM, Hystad P, van Donkelaar A et al (2017) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Environ In 100:139–147Google Scholar
  25. Liang DP, Zhou Y (2008) Waste gas emission control and constraints of energy and economy in China. Energy Policy 36(1):268–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. López-Abente G, García-Pérez J, Fernández-Navarro P, Boldo E, Ramis R (2012) Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain. BMC Public Health 12:589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lottrup L, Stigsdotter UK, Meilby H, Corazon SS (2012) Associations between use, activities and characteristics of the outdoor environment at workplaces. Urban For Urban Green 11(2):159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luo J, Xiao L, Wu C, Zheng Y, Zhao N (2013) The incidence and survival rate of population-based pancreatic cancer patients: Shanghai Cancer Registry 2004-2009. PLoS One 9:301–308Google Scholar
  29. Mostafavi N, Vlaanderen J, Chadeau-Hyam M, Beelen R, Modig L, Palli D, Bergdahl IA, Vineis P, Hoek G, Kyrtopoulos SΑ, Vermeulen R (2015) Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution. Environ Int 81:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC) (2010) China statistical yearbook, 2010. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  31. Newby DE, Mannucci PM, Tell GS, Baccarelli AA, Brook RD, Donaldson K, Forastiere F, Franchini M, Franco OH, Graham I, Hoek G, Hoffmann B, Hoylaerts MF, Künzli N, Mills N, Pekkanen J, Peters A, Piepoli MF, Rajagopalan S, Storey RF, ESC Working Group on Thrombosis, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, ESC Heart Failure Association (2015) Expert position paper on air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 36(2):83–93bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parent MÉ, Goldberg MS, Crouse DL, Ross NA, Chen H, Valois MF, Liautaud A (2013) Traffic-related air pollution and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Occup Environ Med 70:511–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pedersen M, Andersen ZJ, Stafoggia M, Weinmayr G, Galassi C, Sorensen M et al (2017) Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project. Environ Res 154:226–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pope CA, Turner MC, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Gapstur SM, Diver WR (2015) Relationships between fine particulate air pollution, cardiometabolic disorders, and cardiovascular mortality. Circ Res 116(1):108–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Quaglia A, Vercelli M, Lillini R, Mugno E, Coebergh JW, Quinn M, Martinez-Garcia C, Capocaccia R, Micheli A, ELDCARE Working Group (2005) Socio-economic factors and health care system characteristics related to cancer survival in the elderly. A population-based analysis in 16 European countries (ELDCARE project). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 54(2):117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Raaschou-Nielsen O, Beelen R, Wang M, Hoek G, Andersen ZJ, Hoffmann B, Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Weinmayr G, Dimakopoulou K, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Xun WW, Fischer P, Eriksen KT, Sørensen M, Tjønneland A, Ricceri F, de Hoogh K, Key T, Eeftens M, Peeters PH, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Meliefste K, Oftedal B, Schwarze PE, Nafstad P, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Penell J, de Faire U, Korek M, Pedersen N, Östenson CG, Pershagen G, Fratiglioni L, Concin H, Nagel G, Jaensch A, Ineichen A, Naccarati A, Katsoulis M, Trichpoulou A, Keuken M, Jedynska A, Kooter IM, Kukkonen J, Brunekreef B, Sokhi RS, Katsouyanni K, Vineis P (2016) Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer. Environ Int 87:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rich DQ, Kipen HM, Huang W, Wang G, Wang Y, Zhu P, Ohman-Strickland P, Hu M, Philipp C, Diehl SR, Lu SE, Tong J, Gong J, Thomas D, Zhu T, Zhang JJ (2012) Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults. JAMA 307(19):2068–2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shultz SJ, Nguyen AD, Schmitz RJ (2008) Differences in lower extremity anatomical and postural characteristics in males and females between maturation groups. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 38(3):137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2017) Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin 67(1):7–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smith GS, Van Den Eeden SK, Garcia C, Shan J, Baxter R, Herring AH et al (2016) Air pollution and pulmonary tuberculosis: a nested case-control study among members of a northern California health plan. Environ Health Perspect 124:761–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A (2015) Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 65(2):87–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turner MC, Krewski D, Diver WR, Pope CA 3rd, Burnett RT, Jerrett M et al (2017) Ambient air pollution and cancer mortality in the cancer prevention study II. Environ Health Perspect 125(8):087013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei YD, Davis J, Bina WF (2012) Ambient air pollution is associated with the increased incidence of breast cancer in US. Int J Environ Health Res 22(1):12–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Whiteman DC, Wilson LF (2016) The fractions of cancer attributable to modifiable factors: a global review. Cancer Epidemiol 44:203–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoo HJ, Kim J, Yi SM, Zoh KD (2011) Analysis of black carbon, particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants in an industrial area in Korea. Atmos Environ 45(40):7698–7704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao CS, Tie XX, Lin YP (2006) A possible positive feedback of reduction of precipitation and increase in aerosols over eastern central China. Geophys Res Lett 33(11):229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shantou University Medical College, Shantou UniversityShantouChina

Personalised recommendations