Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 13, pp 12579–12587 | Cite as

The ‘333’ integrated strategy for effective pollution control and its application to the heavily polluted Jialu River in north China

  • Yu Huang
  • Jie Sun
  • Aimin Li
  • Xianchuan XieEmail author
Research Article


In this study, an integrated approach named the ‘333’ strategy was applied to pollution control in the Jialu River, in northern China, which is heavily burdened with anthropogenic pollution. Due to a deficiency of the natural ecological inflow, the Jialu River receives predominantly industrial and municipal effluent. The ‘333’ strategy is composed of three steps of pollution control including industrial point-source pollution control, advanced treatment of municipal wastewater, and ecological restoration; three increased stringency emission standards; and three stages of reclamation. Phase 1 of the ‘333’ strategy focuses on industrial point-source pollution control; phase 2 aims to harness municipal wastewater and minimize sewage effluents using novel techniques for advanced water purification; phase 3 of the ‘333’ strategy focuses on the further purification of effluents flowing into Jialu River with the employment of an engineering-based ecological restoration project. The application of the ‘333’ strategy resulted in the development of novel techniques for water purification including modified magnetic resins (NDMP resin), a two-stage internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC reactor) and an ecological restoration system. The results indicate that water quality in the river was significantly improved, with increased concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), as well as reduction of COD by 42.8% and NH3-N by 61.4%. In addition, it was observed that the total population of phytoplankton in treated river water notably increased from only one prior to restoration to 8 following restoration. This system also provides a tool for pollution control of other similar industrial and anthropogenic source polluted rivers.


Urban river ‘333’ strategy Emission standard NDMP resin Ecological restoration 



We gratefully acknowledge generous support provided by Jiangsu Nature Science Fund (BK20151378), NSFC (41203062 and 51438008), China’s National Key Project of Science and Technology (2015ZX07204-007 and 2017ZX07602-004), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (090514380001). The authors declare no competing financial interests in the publication of this article.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1467_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1408 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Center for Hydrosciences Research, School of the Environment, School of Life ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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