Removal of organochlorine pesticides from lindane production wastes by electrochemical oxidation
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This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant pollutants hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCHs, isomers α, β, γ, and δ) and chlorobenzenes (CBs) present in a real groundwater coming from a landfill of an old lindane factory. Groundwater is characterized by a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 9 mg L−1, pH0 = 7, conductivity = 3.7 mS cm−1, high salt concentration (SO42−, HCO3−, Cl−), and ferrous iron in solution. The experiments were performed using a BDD anode and a carbon felt (CF) cathode at the natural groundwater pH and without addition of supporting electrolyte. The complete depletion of the four HCH isomers and a mineralization degree of 90% were reached at 4-h electrolysis with a current intensity of 400 mA, the residual TOC (0.8 mg L−1) corresponding mainly to formic acid. A parallel series reaction pathway was proposed: HCHs and CBs are transformed into chlorinated and hydroxylated intermediates that are rapidly oxidized to non-toxic carboxylic acids and/or mineralized, leading to a rapid decrease in solution pH.
KeywordsOrganochlorine pesticides Hexachlorocyclohexanes Lindane BDD Carbon felt Hydroxyl radical Electrochemical oxidation
The authors acknowledge Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée (France) for research facilities. Carmen M. Dominguez acknowledges the Spanish MINECO for “Juan de la Cierva” post-doctoral grant (FJCI-2014-20732) and the “José Castillejo” mobility program (CAS16/00255).
The authors acknowledge financial support from Comunidad Autonoma of Madrid (Project S2013-MAE-2739 CARESOIL-CM) and from the Spanish MINECO (Project CTM2013-43794-R and CTM2016-77151-C2-1-R).
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