Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 11516–11526 | Cite as

Climate and environmental factors affecting the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, Iran

  • Roghieh RamezankhaniEmail author
  • Nooshin Sajjadi
  • Roya Nezakati esmaeilzadeh
  • Seyed Ali Jozi
  • Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
Research Article


Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne human disease caused by Leishmania, a parasite transmitted by sand flies. CL is endemic in the Isfahan Province, Iran. This study was designed to identify the climate and environmental factors associated with CL incidence in Isfahan Province. Data included incident cases of CL, climate, and environmental factors, which were collected across 23 districts of province from 2007 to 2015. Analyses were performed with generalized linear models (GLMs) to fit a function to the relationships between the response and predictors. We used negative binomial regression due to over-dispersed distribution of CL cases. The effects of all seven climate and environmental factors were found to be significant (all p < 0.01), and the model explained 40% of the deviance of CL incidence. There was a positive relation between mean temperature, relative humidity, and slope of area with disease incidence; however, negative association was demonstrated between maximum wind speed, rainfall, altitude, and vegetation cover with CL incidence. Cutaneous leishmaniasis continues to be a widespread challenge, especially in northwestern parts of Iran. Climate and environmental factors should be considered when selecting the most appropriate strategies for preventing and controlling CL.


Leishmaniasis Cutaneous Incidence Environment Climate Isfahan 



The authors wish to acknowledge the CDC departments of Isfahan and also CDC of Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Tehran, which provided disease incident data. We also acknowledge Tehran Meteorological Center for providing the climate data.

Funding information

The authors declare that they have no funding source.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roghieh Ramezankhani
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nooshin Sajjadi
    • 1
  • Roya Nezakati esmaeilzadeh
    • 1
  • Seyed Ali Jozi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environment, Tehran North BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Communicable Diseases Management CenterMinistry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran

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