Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10654–10667 | Cite as

Influence of labile dissolved organic matter on nitrate reduction in a seepage face

  • Shan Jiang
  • J. Severino P. Ibánhez
  • Carlos Rocha
Research Article
  • 47 Downloads

Abstract

Seepage faces, the outer rim of subterranean estuaries, are an important reaction node for SGD-borne nitrate (NO3) on a global scale. Labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been suggested to be a key factor constraining the NO3 removal rate in aquifer systems. To determine whether and to what extent the availability of labile DOM affects benthic NO3 reduction in seepage faces, a series of flow-through reactor (FTR) experiments with sandy sediment collected from a seepage face was conducted under oxic conditions. Experimental results revealed that the addition of labile DOM (glucose) to porewater did not trigger a significant enhancement in NO3 reduction rate. In contrast, the aerobic respiration was boosted from ca. 50 to 90 μmol dm−3 sediment h−1 by glucose amendments, accounting for approximately 70% consumption of the labile DOM pool. This rapid consumption may increase the NO3 reducing capability within the sediment, but only indirectly. Together with fluorescent DOM (FDOM) analyses, it can be inferred that NO3 reducers tend to choose sediment organic matter the prime electron donor under the experimental conditions. As a result, enrichment of DOM in seepage faces, depending on composition, might only stimulate aerobic respiration and nitrification, thus promoting the increase of ensuing NO3 fluxes to adjacent coastal waters.

Keywords

Submarine groundwater discharge Subterranean estuaries Nitrate removal Organic matter Seepage faces Remineralisation 

Abbreviations

Rred1

\( \mathrm{Maximum}\ {\mathrm{NO}}_3^{-}\ \mathrm{reduction}\ \mathrm{rate}\ \left(\upmu \mathrm{mol}\ {\mathrm{h}}^{-1}\right) \)

Khalfnitrate

\( \mathrm{Half}-\mathrm{saturation}\ {\mathrm{NO}}_3^{-}\ \mathrm{reduction}\ \mathrm{constant}\ \left(\upmu \mathrm{mol}\right) \)

Rred2

\( \mathrm{Maximum}\ {\mathrm{NO}}_2^{-}\ \mathrm{reduction}\ \mathrm{rate}\ \left(\upmu \mathrm{mol}\ {\mathrm{h}}^{-1}\right) \)

Khalfnitrite

\( \mathrm{Half}-\mathrm{saturation}\ {\mathrm{NO}}_2^{-}\ \mathrm{reduction}\ \mathrm{constant}\ \left(\upmu \mathrm{mol}\right) \)

Rcom

Maximum DOC consumation rate (μmol h−1)

KhalfDOC

Half − saturation DOC consumtion constant (μmol)

Kads

First order glucose adsorption rate constant (h−1)

[Glu]eq

Total glucose adsorbed in the reactor at equilibrium (μmol)

[Glu]ads

Total glucose adsorbed in the reactor (μmol)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers whose comments significantly improved the manuscript. Technical support during the laboratory analyses by Dr. Tara Kelly, Dr. Dannielle Senga Green, Dr. Yue Lu and Mr. Mark Kavanagh at Trinity College Dublin is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1302_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 6006 kb).

References

  1. Addy K, Gold A, Nowicki B, McKenna J, Stolt M, Groffman P (2005) Denitrification capacity in a subterranean estuary below a Rhode Island fringing salt marsh. Estuaries 28(6):896–908.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02696018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrade C, Freitas M, Moreno J, Craveiro S (2004) Stratigraphical evidence of Late Holocene barrier breaching and extreme storms in lagoonal sediments of Ria Formosa, Algarve, Portugal. Mar Geol 210(1):339–362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beusen A, Slomp C, Bouwman A (2013) Global land–ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. Environ Res Lett 8(1):4035–4043Google Scholar
  4. Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ (2006) Pore-scale modeling and continuous time random walk analysis of dispersion in porous media. Water Resour Res 42(1):535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley P, Fernandez M Jr, Chapelle F (1992) Carbon limitation of denitrification rates in an anaerobic groundwater system. Environ Sci Technol 26(12):2377–2381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgin AJ, Hamilton SK (2007) Have we overemphasized the role of denitrification in aquatic ecosystems? A review of nitrate removal pathways. Front Ecol Environ 5(2):89–96.Google Scholar
  7. Burnett WC, Bokuniewicz H, Huettel M, Moore WS, Taniguchi M (2003) Groundwater and pore water inputs to the coastal zone. Biogeochemistry 66(1):3–33.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOG.0000006066.21240.53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canuel EA, Martens CS (1993) Seasonal variations in the sources and alteration of organic matter associated with recently-deposited sediments. Org Geochem 20(5):563–577.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(93)90024-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charbonnier C, Anschutz P, Poirier D, Bujan S, Lecroart P (2013) Aerobic respiration in a high-energy sandy beach. Mar Chem 155(4):10–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charette MA, Sholkovitz ER (2006) Trace element cycling in a subterranean estuary: part 2. Geochemistry of the pore water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70(4):811–826.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2005.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chipman L, Berg P, Huettel M (2016) Benthic oxygen fluxes measured by eddy covariance in permeable Gulf of Mexico shallow-water sands. Aquat Geochem 2016:1–26Google Scholar
  12. Coble PG, (1996) Characterization of marine and terrestrial DOM in seawater using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy. Mar Chem 51(4):325–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook PLM, Kessler AJ, Eyre BD (2017) Does denitrification occur within porous carbonate sand grains? Biogeosciences 14(18):4061–4069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cornwell JC, Kemp WM, Kana TM (1999) Denitrification in coastal ecosystems: methods, environmental controls, and ecosystem level controls, a review. Aquat Ecol 33(1):41–54.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009921414151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corre MD, Schnabel RR, Stout WL (2002) Spatial and seasonal variation of gross nitrogen transformations and microbial biomass in a northeastern US grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 34(4):445–457.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00198-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dalsgaard T, Stewart FJ, Thamdrup B, De Brabandere L, Revsbech NP, Ulloa O, Canfield DE, DeLong EF (2014) Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile. MBio 5:1966–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dean WE Jr (1974) Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition: comparison with other methods. J Sediment Res 44(1):242–248Google Scholar
  18. Dodla SK, Wang JJ, DeLaune RD, Cook RL (2008) Denitrification potential and its relation to organic carbon quality in three coastal wetland soils. Sci Total Environ 407(1):471–480.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.08.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Erler DV, Santos IR, Eyre BD (2014a) Inorganic nitrogen transformations within permeable carbonate sands. Cont Shelf Res 77(1):69–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2014.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erler DV, Santos IR, Zhang Y, Tait DR, Befus KM, Hidden A, Li L, Eyre BD (2014b) Nitrogen transformations within a tropical subterranean estuary. Mar Chem 164(5):38–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2014.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gao H, Schreiber F, Collins G, Jensen MM, Kostka JE, Lavik G, de Beer D, Zhou H, Kuypers MMM (2010) Aerobic denitrification in permeable Wadden Sea sediments. ISME J 4(3):417–426.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2009.127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grasshoff K, Kremling K, Ehrhardt M (2009) Methods of seawater analysis. John Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  23. Grundmanis V, Murray JW (1982) Aerobic respiration in pelagic marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46(6):1101–1120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(82)90062-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guo W, Xu J, Wang J, Wen Y, Zhuo J, Yan Y (2010) Characterization of dissolved organic matter in urban sewage using excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. J Environ Sci 22(11):1728–1734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60312-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harris D, Horwáth WR, van Kessel C (2001) Acid fumigation of soils to remove carbonates prior to total organic carbon or carbon-13 isotopic analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65(6):1853–1856.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.1853 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Henrichs SM, Sugai SF (1993) Adsorption of amino acids and glucose by sediments of Resurrection Bay, Alaska, USA: functional group effects. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57(4):823–835.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(93)90171-R CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hill AR, Sanmugadas K (1985) Denitrification rates in relation to stream sediment characteristics. Water Res 19(12):1579–1586.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(85)90403-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huettel M, Berg P, Kostka JE (2014) Benthic exchange and biogeochemical cycling in permeable sediments. Annu Rev Mar Sci 6(1):23–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ibánhez JSP, Rocha C (2014) Effects of recirculation of seawater enriched in inorganic nitrogen on dissolved organic carbon processing in sandy seepage face sediments. Mar Chem 166:48–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2014.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ibánhez JSP, Rocha C (2016) Oxygen transport and reactivity within a sandy seepage face in a mesotidal lagoon (Ria Formosa, southwestern Iberia). Limnol Oceanogr 61(1):61–77.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ibánhez JSP, Rocha C (2017) Kinetics of inorganic nitrogen turnover in a sandy seepage face on a subterranean estuary. Appl Geochem 87:108–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ibánhez JSP, Leote C, Rocha C (2011) Porewater nitrate profiles in sandy sediments hosting submarine groundwater discharge described by an advection–dispersion-reaction model. Biogeochemistry 103(1):159–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ibánhez JSP, Leote C, Rocha C (2013) Seasonal enhancement of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)-derived nitrate loading into the ria Formosa coastal lagoon assessed by 1-D modeling of benthic NO3 profiles. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 132(11):56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiang X, Jin X, Yao Y, Li L, Wu F (2008) Effects of biological activity, light, temperature and oxygen on phosphorus release processes at the sediment and water interface of Taihu Lake, China. Water Res 42(8–9):2251–2259.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuwae T, Kibe E, Nakamura Y (2003) Effect of emersion and immersion on the porewater nutrient dynamics of an intertidal sandflat in Tokyo Bay. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 57(5-6):929–940.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00423-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lawaetz AJ, Stedmon CA (2009) Fluorescence intensity calibration using the Raman scatter peak of water. Appl Spectrosc 63(8):936–940.  https://doi.org/10.1366/000370209788964548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leote C, Ibánhez JS, Rocha C (2008) Submarine groundwater discharge as a nitrogen source to the Ria Formosa studied with seepage meters. Biogeochemistry 88(2):185–194.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-008-9204-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Li L, Barry D, Stagnitti F, Parlange JY (1999) Submarine groundwater discharge and associated chemical input to a coastal sea. Water Resour Res 35(11):3253–3259.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1999WR900189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu Y, Jiao JJ, Luo X (2016) Effects of inland water level oscillation on groundwater dynamics and land-sourced solute transport in a coastal aquifer. Coast Eng 114:347–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2016.04.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Monod J (1949) The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu Rev Microbiol 3:371–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moore WS (1999) The subterranean estuary: a reaction zone of ground water and sea water. Mar Chem 65(1–2):111–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(99)00014-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nelder JA, Mead R (1965) A simplex method for function minimization. Comput J 7(4):308–313.  https://doi.org/10.1093/comjnl/7.4.308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pacheco A, Carrasco A, Vila-Concejo A, Ferreira O, Dias J (2007) A coastal management program for channels located in backbarrier systems. Ocean Coast Manag 50(1):119–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paerl WH (2010) Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as “new” nitrogen and other nutrient sources. Limnol Oceanogr 42(5):1154–1165Google Scholar
  45. Pallud C, Meile C, Laverman AM, Abell J, Van Cappellen P (2007) The use of flow-through sediment reactors in biogeochemical kinetics: methodology and examples of applications. Mar Chem 106(1):256–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Parlanti E, Wörz K, Geoffroy L, Lamotte M (2000) Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Org Geochem 31(12):1765–1781.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00124-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pfenning K, McMahon P (1997) Effect of nitrate, organic carbon, and temperature on potential denitrification rates in nitrate-rich riverbed sediments. J Hydrol 187(3–4):283–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03052-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pusceddu A, Sarà G, Armeni M, Fabiano M, Mazzola A (1999) Seasonal and spatial changes in the sediment organic matter of a semi-enclosed marine system (W-Mediterranean Sea). Hydrobiologia 397:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rabalais NN, Turner RE, Díaz RJ, Justić D (2009) Global change and eutrophication of coastal waters. ICES J Mar Sci 66(7):1528–1537.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rao AMF, McCarthy MJ, Gardner WS, Jahnke RA (2007) Respiration and denitrification in permeable continental shelf deposits on the South Atlantic Bight: Rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling from sediment column experiments. Cont Shelf Res 27(13):1801–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reckhardt A, Becka M, Seidelb M, Riedelb T, Wehrmannc A, Bartholomäc A, Schnetgera B, Dittmarb T, Hans-Jürgen B (2015) Carbon, nutrient and trace metal cycling in sandy sediments: a comparison of high-energy beaches and backbarrier tidal flats. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 159:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.03.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Renberg I, Hansson H (2008) The HTH sediment corer. J Paleolimnol 40(2):655–659.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10933-007-9188-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rivett MO, Buss SR, Morgan P, Smith JW, Bemment CD (2008) Nitrate attenuation in groundwater: a review of biogeochemical controlling processes. Water Res 42(16):4215–4232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.07.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rocha C, Cabral A (1998) The influence of tidal action on porewater nitrate concentration and dynamics in intertidal sediments of the Sado estuary. Estuaries 21(4):635–645.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1353301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rocha C, Forster S, Eoning K, Epping E (2005) High-resolution permeability determination and two-dimensional pore water flow in sandy sediment. Limnol Oceanogr-Methods 3(1):10–23.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2005.3.10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rocha C, Ibanhez J, Leote C (2009) Benthic nitrate biogeochemistry affected by tidal modulation of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) through a sandy beach face, Ria Formosa, southwestern Iberia. Mar Chem 115(1–2):43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rocha C, Wilson J, Scholten J, Schubert M (2015) Retention and fate of groundwater-borne nitrogen in a coastal bay (Kinvara Bay, Western Ireland) during summer. Biogeochemistry 152(2):275–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rocha C, Veiga-Pires C, Scholten J, Knoeller K, Gröcke DR, Carvalho L, Anibal J, Wilson J (2016) Assessing land–ocean connectivity via Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in the Ria Formosa lagoon (Portugal): combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 20(8):3077–3098.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-3077-2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Santoro AE (2010) Microbial nitrogen cycling at the saltwater–freshwater interface. Hydrogeol J 18(1):187–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-009-0526-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Santoro AE, Boehm AB, Francis CA (2006) Denitrifier community composition along a nitrate and salinity gradient in a coastal aquifer. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(3):2102–2109.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.3.2102-2109.2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Santos IR, Burnett WC, Dittmar T, Suryaputra IGNA, Chanton J (2009) Tidal pumping drives nutrient and dissolved organic matter dynamics in a Gulf of Mexico subterranean estuary. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73(5):1325–1339.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.11.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Santos IR, Eyre BD, Glud RN (2012) Influence of porewater advection on denitrification in carbonate sands: Evidence from repacked sediment column experiments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 96:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Santos IR, Lechuga-Deveze C, Peterson RN, Burnett WC (2011) Tracing submarine hydrothermal inputs into a coastal bay in Baja California using radon. Chem Geol 282(1–2):1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.12.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Slomp CP, Van Cappellen P (2004) Nutrient inputs to the coastal ocean through submarine groundwater discharge: controls and potential impact. J Hydrol 295(1–4):64–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.02.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith SV, Atkinson MJ (1994) Mass balance of nutrient fluxes in coastal lagoons. Elsevier Oceanogr Ser 60:133–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0422-9894(08)70011-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Starr RC, Gillham RW (1993) Denitrification and organic carbon availability in two aquifers. Groundwater 31(6):934–947.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.1993.tb00867.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stedmon CA, Bro R (2008) Characterizing dissolved organic matter fluorescence with parallel factor analysis: a tutorial. Limnol Oceanogr Methods 6(11):572–579.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2008.6.572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stubbins A, Lapierre JF, Berggren M, Prairie Y, Dittmar T, del Giorgio P (2014) What’s in an EEM? Molecular signatures associated with dissolved organic fluorescence in boreal Canada. Environ Sci Technol. 48(18):10598–10606.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es502086e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tait DR, Erler DV, Santos IR, Cyronak TJ, Morgenstern U, Eyre BD (2014) The influence of groundwater inputs and age on nutrient dynamics in a coral reef lagoon. Mar Chem 166:36–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2014.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Taniguchi M, Burnett WC, Cable JE, Turner JV (2002) Investigation of submarine groundwater discharge. Hydrol Process 16(11):2115–2129.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilson AM, Gardner LR (2006) Tidally driven groundwater flow and solute exchange in a marsh: numerical simulations. Water Resour Res 42(1):209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biogeochemistry Research Group, Geography Department, School of Natural SciencesTrinity College DublinDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations